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2010-7-21 09:49

小艾摘要: Could future technological standards be driven by the Chinese Communist Party Politburo, as well as Steve Jobs?That's what Dieter Ernst appears to be predicting as an outcome of Beijing's growing ro ...
Could future technological standards be driven by the Chinese Communist Party Politburo, as well as Steve Jobs?

That's what Dieter Ernst appears to be predicting as an outcome of Beijing's growing role in shaping standards, ranging from the rules that govern how mobile phones operate to whether cribs can have foldable doors.

Ernst calls certification standards the 'underbelly of innovation.'

Standards are much in the news, as China pursues a policy called 'indigenous innovation,' essentially a certification regime that Beijing appears to hope will incubate technological developments.

Multinational companies are deeply frustrated by the Chinese indigenous innovation rules, since they appear designed to compel global businesses to develop and deploy their latest technology in China if they want to sell into the big market.

The risk of introducing technology to China, of course, is the limited protection of intellectual property, meaning inventors may not profit.

But the element of the indigenous innovation policy criticized by Ernst, a researcher at East-West Center in Honolulu, is how Beijing's bureaucracy is responsible for writing a catalog of approved products.

Any catalog, he says, is a lagging indicator of technological achievement. 'Such control lists focus on existing technologies, rather than on the future innovations that they are designed to promote,' he says in a newly published commentary.

Ernst, an economist who has written extensively on the internationalization of technology, says cataloging products is a reflection of Beijing's top-down, government-led policymaking - and he doubts a list will hatch innovation.

It may hold back Chinese companies, he said in the commentary, 'that seek to move beyond the status of fast-followers to become co-shapers of international standards.'

On paper, China has watered down its rules that sales to the government must go hand-in-hand with technology transfer. But increasingly vocal criticism of the regime by chieftains of companies like General Electric Co., BASF SE and Siemens AG, as well as surveys, suggests multinationals fear the policy hasn't gone away.

In a telephone interview, Ernst said his commentary precedes a soon-to-be-published report on China's standards policies, which will deal with how the country might upgrade its standards systems. Standards, he said, are a 'much undervalued critical element for innovation,' and ever-changing.

As China emerges, he added, there is a philosophical and practical inconsistency between the U.S.'s bottom-up, private-sector approach and China's top-down, government-led action.

'There's not going to be convergence,' he said. 'Once we can accept that, then we can find areas where we can cooperate.'

While Ernst sees 'persistent diversity' in global standards - from telecommunications and medicine to trains and toys - continuing, some areas may be prioritized for international cooperation, such as safety standards.

China, on some levels, has made efforts with the U.S. and European Union to collaborate on standards, particularly in product safety, where Beijing is eager to ensure its exports have markets.

But in a multitude of other areas, whether it is protocol governing Apple's new iPhone or bad drywall, the cooperation has been limited.

未来会出现技术标准由中共中央政治局和乔布斯(Steve Jobs)来推动的局面吗?

European Pressphoto Agency 对于像iPhone这样的产品,中国将在标准制定上扮演什么样的角色。恩斯特(Dieter Ernst)似乎预计这是一种必然结果。从移动电话的运营规则,到婴儿床是否应安可折叠门,北京在诸多技术标准的制定上正拥有越来越大的影响力。





但美国檀香山东西中心(East-West Center)研究员恩斯特批评中国本土创新政策的着力点却是,中国政府的官僚作风导致了本土创新产品认可目录的产生。




从表面上看,中国政府已经淡化了要求外国企业向中国政府出售产品时必须同时进行技术转让的规定。但通用电气(General Electric Co.)、巴斯夫(BASF SE)和西门子(Siemens AG)等公司老总们对这一机制日益响亮的批评声、以及针对西方企业的一系列调查都显示,跨国公司担心中国政府的这一政策并未取消。







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