【英语财经】如何把你的孩子培养成企业家

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2011-6-23 22:21

小艾摘要: How do you get kids ready to become entrepreneurs?The classic answer, of course, is the lemonade stand: Encourage your kids to start a homespun business instead of just bugging you for money. But entr ...
How do you get kids ready to become entrepreneurs?

The classic answer, of course, is the lemonade stand: Encourage your kids to start a homespun business instead of just bugging you for money. But entrepreneurs and educators say the real solution goes much deeper than that. There are crucial psychological traits an entrepreneur needs to succeed, they say, and parents should help kids develop them at every opportunity.

Here's a look at those attributes and how to foster them.

Adventurous

Parents should urge kids to explore their environment and don't let them get too comfortable, advises Arthur Blank, co-founder of Home Depot Inc. and owner of the National Football League's Atlanta Falcons. That means urging them to ask questions constantly and develop an inquiring mind. For instance, 'get them the right kind of toys in which kids must figure out for themselves what to do,' he says. And 'on vacation, try different restaurants outside their comfort level.'

Pierre Omidyar, founder of eBay Inc., agrees that exploration and inquiry are crucial lessons. 'Our kids seem to thrive in situations that engage their curiosity and allow them to explore and discover the world around them on their own terms,' Mr. Omidyar says.

In his own childhood, he was immersed in both Persian and French culture thanks to his parents' backgrounds. 'Being exposed to and learning about these cultures taught me early on that there are different ways to think about any single situation, and that you don't always have to do things the way they've always been done,' Mr. Omidyar says.

Dependable and Stable

Pramodita Sharma, a visiting professor at Babson College and director of the school's STEP Global Project for Family Enterprising, also advises parents to help their kids develop an inquiring mind. But she says a couple of other traits are just as important: conscientiousness and emotional stability.

Parents should insist that kids deliver high-quality work at the promised time, whether it's chores, homework or extracurricular activities. And parents should model good behavior, demonstrating control when emotions run high. They should also urge their children to take steps such as waiting to respond when they lose their temper.
Observant

Parents should help kids recognize that their world is full of business opportunities, and finding them just takes some careful observation and creativity.

Christine Poorman, executive director of the Chicago office of the Network for Teaching Entrepreneurship, which provides an entrepreneurship course for at-risk youths, says students are encouraged to walk around their communities and evaluate business needs. One student found her neighborhood's bodegas and hardware stores didn't have an online presence, so she created logos and websites for them.

Real-estate magnate Sam Zell also puts a high value on teaching curiosity and observation. An entrepreneur, he says, is always 'seeing problems and then seeing solutions.'

Sometimes those problems aren't as obvious as they look. 'When I was 12, my parents moved from Chicago to the suburb of Highland Park,' says Mr. Zell. Every day, 'I would go into the city by train after school to attend Yeshiva school. I noticed that under the L track, they were selling Playboy magazines. I would pay 50 cents apiece for them and then bring them home to the suburbs to sell to my friends for $3 it was my first lesson in supply and demand.'

Team Player

Sports can be a great classroom for entrepreneurial values. Mr. Blank says his six children, who have all played a variety of sports, have had to learn how to deal with setbacks and how to move past losses. 'Sports teach how important teamwork is. The germ of the idea for Home Depot was with Bernie [Marcus] and me, but we also needed the ability to get other people excited about the idea to get in the game, so to speak,' he says.

His son Joshua is captain of his eighth-grade soccer team, he says a role that will help the boy learn about leadership and inspiring others, as well as playing his own position.

'Not winning every game and teamwork these are all good lessons for entrepreneurship,' Mr. Blank says.

Solitary pursuits can instill good values, too. Jim Koch, founder of Boston Beer Co., found climbing mountains a good building block in becoming an entrepreneur. 'Climbers are a lot like entrepreneurs. They are willing to put themselves in a risky situation and then once there they become careful and cautious and try to reduce and eliminate the risk,' says Mr. Koch, who taught mountaineering for Outward Bound in British Columbia in the 1970s.

Lead by Example

In the end, many entrepreneurs say the most valuable thing you can do to teach your kids about entrepreneurship is to practice it yourself.

For Mr. Blank, his parents were his biggest influence on his becoming an entrepreneur.

'I saw living examples of entrepreneurs,' he says. 'My dad was 39 years old when he started a pharmacy wholesale business. He passed away at 44 when I was 15. My mother, who was 37 at the time, had no business experience but was a risk taker in her own way. She grew the business and later sold it to a larger pharmaceutical firm.'

For Scottrade founder and chief executive Rodger Riney, the entrepreneurial model was his grandfather, who owned several small businesses in Hannibal, Mo., including a fertilizer plant, cemetery, grain elevator, insurance firm, alfalfa plant and trailer-rental business.

His mother's lessons in the Golden Rule were another big inspiration. 'I paid attention to that and tried to treat people the way I wanted to be treated, and that later translated into how I wanted to treat my customers,' Mr. Riney says.

(Ms. Haislip is a writer in Chatham, N.J. )

如何才能把你的孩子培养创业者

Paul Hoppe当然,经典答案是摆摊卖柠檬汽水:鼓励你的孩子开办一个作坊式的小企业挣钱,而不是伸手向你讨要零用钱。但是,创业者和教育学家称,实际的解决之道要比这个深奥得多。他们说,想要成为一名创业者,必须具备一些至关重要的心理特征,父母应该抓住一切机会口明孩子发展这些特征。

让我们来看看这些特征以及如何去培养它们。

热爱冒险

家得宝(Home Depot Inc.)的联合创始人之一、美国国家橄榄球联盟(National Football League)亚特兰大猎鹰队(Atlanta Falcons)的老板亚瑟·布兰克(Arthur Blank)建议,父母应该鼓励孩子探索他们周围的环境,不要让他们过得太舒适安逸。这意味着要不断鼓励他们提问题,培养一个爱追根究底的好奇大脑。例如,为他们挑选适当的玩具,这些玩具需要他们自己去研究玩法。另外,在度假的时候,可以尝试一些和他们以往舒适的体验不同的餐馆。

eBay Inc.的创始人皮埃尔·奥米德亚(Pierre Omidyar)也认为探索和询问是至关重要的课程。他说:“激发孩子们的好奇心,允许他们以自己的方式探索和发现周围的世界,在这样的环境中,我们的孩子们才能茁壮成长。”

在他本人的童年时代,得益于父母双方的背景,他可以同时浸淫在波斯文化和法国文化中。奥米德亚说:“接触并学习这些文化让我很早就懂得了可以用不同的方式去思考任何单一的状况,我们不必总是墨守成规地去做事。”

为人可靠、情绪稳定

什么时候该教孩子理财,应该教他们些什么,怎样教才能更有趣味,让我们听听专家怎么说。
百森商学院(Babson College)的访问教授、该校STEP家庭创业全球项目(STEP Global Project for Family Enterprising)的主管普拉莫蒂塔·夏尔马(Pramodita Sharma)也建议父母帮助孩子培养好奇的大脑。但她说,还有两个特点也很重要:认真负责和情绪稳定。

父母应该坚决要求孩子在承诺的时间内完成高品质的工作,无论是干零活、写家庭作业还是从事业余活动。父母应该树立好榜样,当情绪激动的时候要表现出克制力。他们还应该告诫孩子在情绪失控时要采取诸如等待一会儿再做出反应的措施。

敏锐的观察力

父母应该口明孩子认识到他们的世界充满了商机,只要仔细观察并发挥创造力,就能发现它们。

全球创业指导基金会(Network for Teaching Entrepreneurship)为爱冒险的年轻人提供创业管理课程,该基金会芝加哥办公室的执行主任克丽丝婷·普尔曼(Christine Poorman)称,他们鼓励学生走访社区,评估商业需求。一位学生发现,她邻居的杂货店和五金店没有上网,于是便为他们设计了标识、创建了网站。

房地产巨头萨姆·泽尔(Sam Zell)也认为培养好奇心和观察力很重要。他说,一位创业者总是能发现问题,然后找到解决办法。

有时候,这些问题没有那么明显。泽尔说:“在我12岁的时候,我父母从芝加哥迁居到高地公园(Highland Park)郊区。放学后我要搭乘火车去城里上犹太学校。我发现有人在捷运轨道下面出售《花花公子》(Playboy)杂志。我以每本50美分的价格买进,然后把它们带回郊区的家中,以每本3美元的价格卖给朋友们,这是我上的关于供应和需求的第一课。”

团队精神

运动是培养创业者价值观的理想课堂。布兰克说,他的6个孩子都从事各种各样的运动项目,他们不得不学会如何应对挫折以及忘掉失败。他说:“运动能让人领会团队合作的重要性。家得宝这个概念是由伯纳德·马库斯(Bernie Marcus)和我提出来的,但可以这么说,我们还得有能力激起其他人对这个想法的热情,并让他们参与进来。”

他的儿子约书亚(Joshua)是其所在的八年级足球队的队长。他说,这个角色将帮助他儿子学会在自己踢好球的同时领导和激励别人。

布兰克说,经历比赛的输赢以及团队协作──这些都是培养创业精神的好课程。

独自从事某些活动也能灌注良好的创业价值观。波士顿啤酒公司(Boston Beer Co.)的创始人吉姆·科克(Jim Koch)发现,对于有志成为创业者的人来说,爬山是一项很好的锻炼。他说:“爬山者和创业者有很多相似之处。他们都喜欢将自己置于一个危险之地,一旦到达那里,他们就会变得小心谨慎,努力降低和消除风险。”20世纪70年代,科克在不列颠哥伦比亚省为Outward Bound野外拓展训练机构教授登山课程。

榜样的力量

最后,许多创业者都表示,你能教给孩子的有关创业精神的最宝贵的东西是身体力行地去实践。

就布兰克而言,他的父母在他成为创业者的过程中对他影响最大。

他说:“我看到了生动的创业实例。我父亲在他39岁的时候创办了一家药品批发企业。他在44岁的时候过世,当时我只有15岁,我的母亲37岁。她从来没有做生意的经验,但却以自己的方式去承担风险。她把父亲的业务发展壮大,后来把它卖给了一家更大的药品公司。”

对史考特证券(Scottrade)的创始人兼首席执行长罗杰·瑞尼(Rodger Riney)来说,创业榜样是他的祖父,后者在密苏里州的汉尼伯(Hannibal)拥有几家小企业,其中包括肥料厂、公墓、谷仓、保险公司、紫花苜蓿种植园和拖车租赁业务。

他母亲教给他的黄金法则是另一个重要启示。瑞尼说:“我很注意这些,努力做到己所不欲勿施于人,后来我把它作为对待顾客的原则。

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