【英语财经】美欧拟扩大对俄罗斯经济制裁 West looks to broaden sanctions on Russia

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2014-5-13 06:55

小艾摘要: The US and its leading European allies are preparing wider sanctions on Russia’s economy and are discussing a ban on the export of high-tech energy equipment if Moscow is seen to have disrupted Ukrai ...
West looks to broaden sanctions on Russia
The US and its leading European allies are preparing wider sanctions on Russia’s economy and are discussing a ban on the export of high-tech energy equipment if Moscow is seen to have disrupted Ukraine’s presidential elections on May 25.

The west is still backing the presidential poll to relegitimise Kiev’s leadership, even as separatist leaders in Donetsk, eastern Ukraine, asked Russia to annex it, after what they claimed was a resounding victory in a self-rule referendum on Sunday.

The US, UK, Germany and France are warning the Kremlin that attempts to undermine the presidential vote will bring about “phase three” of sanctions. This would take penalties beyond individuals and companies to economic sectors.

One option being discussed is a plan that would prevent western companies from exporting high-end energy technologies to Russian companies, officials said. This could hamper Russia’s attempts to move beyond traditional production and export markets.

In the US, this could take the form of new export licence requirements, similar to those recently imposed on military technology exports. Existing projects would be protected but any new programmes would either receive extended scrutiny or be blocked.

But the plans may face opposition from Italy, another G7 member, while EU foreign ministers meeting in Brussels remained divided over the trigger for moving to the third phase of sanctions. The 28 member states concluded only that they would “pay particular attention to all parties’ attitude and behaviour towards” Ukraine’s presidential poll when deciding on future sanctions.

EU ministers did agree to expand their travel bans and asset freezes on Russia to 13 more individuals and two companies in Crimea, which Moscow annexed in March.

In a sign of the difficulty of forging a united front, France is pressing ahead with the ¢1.2bn sale of two helicopter assault ships to Russia despite growing US pressure to stop the deal.

The international manoeuvring came as separatist leaders in Donetsk claimed that almost nine out of 10 voters had backed self-rule on Sunday, on a turnout of nearly 75 per cent. Neighbouring Lugansk said 94-95 per cent of participants had supported self-rule in a similar poll, on an 81 per cent turnout.

The referendums were widely denounced as illegal by the international community and took place without observers. Oleksandr Turchynov, Ukraine’s acting president, claimed -turnout in the two polls was 32 per cent and 24 per cent respectively.

Additional reporting by Roman Olearchyk in Kiev, Courtney Weaver in Moscow and Ed Crooks in New York

美国及主要欧洲盟友正准备扩大针对俄罗斯经济的制裁措施,并讨论一项高科技能源设备的出口禁令——如果莫斯科被视为扰乱5月25日的乌克兰总统选举。

西方仍然支持此次大选,以便让基辅的领导层获得合法性,尽管乌克兰东部顿涅茨克(Donetsk)的分离主义领导人在声称其在周日举行的自治公投中取得大胜后,要求俄罗斯吞并它。

美国、英国、德国和法国警告克里姆林宫,破坏乌克兰大选的企图将引发“第三阶段”制裁。该阶段将超越针对个人和公司的惩罚,将制裁对象扩大到整个经济部门。

官员们表示,正在讨论的选择之一是一个计划,阻止西方企业向俄罗斯企业出口高端能源技术。这可能会阻碍俄罗斯试图超越传统生产和出口市场的努力。

在美国,这可能采用新的出口许可证要求的形式,类似于新近实行的针对军用技术出口的限制。现有项目将得到保护,但任何新的项目要么接受漫长审查,要么被封杀。

但这些计划可能面临七国集团(G7)另一个成员意大利的反对,同时在布鲁塞尔开会的欧盟外长围绕触发第三阶段制裁的红线仍有分歧。28个欧盟成员国只能达成这样的共识:它们在决定未来制裁时,将“特别注意有关各方对(乌克兰总统大选)的态度和行为”。

欧盟各国外长们确实同意扩大针对俄罗斯的旅行禁令和资产冻结措施,使其包括克里米亚的另外13人和两家公司。俄罗斯在今年3月吞并了克里米亚

突显打造统一战线难度的一个迹象是,法国执意推进向俄罗斯出口两艘直升机攻击舰的12亿欧元计划,尽管美国正施加越来越大的压力,要求叫停这笔交易。

国际社会忙于布局之际,顿涅茨克的分离主义领导人声称,在周日举行的自治公投中,近90%的选民投下赞成票,投票率达到近75%。邻近的卢甘斯克(Lugansk)表示,94%至95%的投票者在一场类似的公投中支持自治,投票率达到81%。

这两场公投被国际社会广泛谴责为不合法,而且是在没有观察员的情况下举行的。乌克兰代总统亚历山大?图尔奇诺夫(Oleksandr Turchynov)称,这两场公投的投票率分别为32%和24%。

罗曼?奥莱亚契克(Roman Olearchyk)基辅、柯特妮?韦弗 (Courtney Weaver)莫斯科和艾德?克鲁克斯(Ed Crooks)纽约补充报道

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