【英语中国】卫生专家呼吁中国加大非传染疾病控制

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2013-11-13 14:02

小艾摘要: China should do more to curb a rise in non-communicable diseases like heart disease and diabetes that have long been neglected and now pose a risk to its economy, global health experts warned.Non-comm ...
China should do more to curb a rise in non-communicable diseases like heart disease and diabetes that have long been neglected and now pose a risk to its economy, global health experts warned.

Non-communicable diseases challenge China's economic development and cause a burden on society, said Bernhard Schwartländer, the World Health Organization's representative in China, in a press briefing on Tuesday. 'The cost of inaction, of doing nothing-in lives lost and social and economic prosperity foregone-is too great a price to pay,' he said.

He was joined by representatives of China's National Health and Family Planning Commission and China's Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Dr. Schwartländer said that high rates of smoking, lack of exercise and unhealthy diets have contributed to diseases. He said that the Chinese government should adopt policies to address problems, which have been overlooked and underfunded.

By 2015, the burden of death and health complications related to non-communicable disease will have cost $500 billion in the last decade, Dr. Schwartlander said. Reducing mortality only by addressing cardiovascular disease, reducing rates 1% per year in by 2040, would generate $10.7 trillion, he said.

Health care was largely left out a reform agenda Chinese leaders unveiled on Tuesday, though it briefly mentioned improving people's welfare and strengthening reform of the medical and health system. China launched in 2009 an overhaul of its health-care system, establishing a universal insurance system to provide citizens more access to medical care.

China is struggling to deal with a population that is urbanizing, aging and is afflicted with chronic disease. Migration of millions of Chinese citizens to big cities from rural regions has spurred use of cigarettes, higher alcohol intake and increasingly sedentary lifestyles-all habits that lend to illness.

Now China is home to the world's largest diabetes population, with the prevalence of 11.6% of the population-surpassing Russia's population, said Li Guangwei, a professor at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Chronic disease is the cause of 85% of deaths in China, according to China's Ministry of Health. By comparison, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says the rate is 70 per 100 in the U.S., while the World Health Organization says they represent 63% of deaths world-wide.

Funding remains a major issue, experts said. China's health spending as a percent of GDP totaled 2.3% in 2011, compared to U.S. spending of 9.7%, according to the most recent data available from the World Bank.

Community clinics are overrun with patients and lack resources needed to address health problems, said Wang Bin, the deputy director the Disease Control and Prevention department of China's National Health and Family Planning Commission.

Tobacco control remains underfunded, said Jiang Yuan, deputy director of the Tobacco Control Office of China's CDC. The government allocated only 20 million yuan (about $3.3 million) last year for tobacco control, Ms. Jiang said.

Dr. Schwartländer said it isn't likely that the China will reach the target set for it by the WHO to cut smoking rates in China by at least 30% by 2025. Currently 28% of people older than 15-301 million people-are smokers in China and smoking-related sickness kills more than one million Chinese citizens each year, according to WHO data. That compares to 43.8 million smokers in the U.S., according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Experts said that the government should not shoulder all the responsibilities to improve health conditions and that citizens should adopt healthier lifestyles by eating less salt, exercising more and cutting bad habits like smoking and drinking . 'People are the owners of their own health,' said Dr. Wang, adding, 'We're at an important window in China.'

世界卫生专家警告称,中国应进一步努力控制心脏病和糖尿病等长期被忽视的非传染性疾病患病人数的增加势头,目前这一趋势已对中国经济构成风险。

世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)驻中国代表施贺德(Bernhard Schwartlander)周二在一个新闻发布会上表示,非传染性疾病令中国的经济发展面临挑战,而且造成社会负担,如果不采取行动,听由此类疾病夺去生命、影响社会和经济发展,那么未来要付出的代价将是沉重的。

出席该新闻发布会的还有中国国家卫生和计划生育委员会(简称:国家卫生计生委)及中国疾病预防控制中心的代表。

施贺德说,吸烟率居高、缺乏锻炼以及不健康的饮食习惯是引发疾病的原因。他表示,中国政府应采取措施解决这些一直以来被忽视且治理资金投入不足的问题。

施贺德说,到2015年,最近十年内与非传染性疾病相关的死亡及并发症造成的经济负担将达到5,000亿美元。他表示,如果2040年之前每年将心血管病死亡率降低1%,由此产生的经济效益将达到10.7万亿美元。

中共领导人周二公布的三中全会会议公报基本未将卫生保健列入改革议程,但简要提及了增进人民福祉和深化医药卫生体制改革。中国在2009年进行了医疗体系改革,建立了全民医保制度,为居民提供更多享受医保的途径。

中国目前正面临城镇化和人口老龄化问题,同时还面临慢性疾病多发难题。中国有数百万人从农村地区涌向大城市,这导致吸烟和饮酒人群大幅增加,并且久坐不动的生活方式也越来越普遍,而这些都是诱发疾病的生活习惯。

中国医学科学院教授李光伟说,目前中国是全球糖尿病患者最多的国家,患病率达到11.6%,患者人数超过了俄罗斯的总人口数。中国卫生部称,中国85%的死亡都是因慢性疾病造成的。而美国疾病控制与预防中心(U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)发布的数据显示,美国的这一比率为70%;世界卫生组织称全球63%的死亡是由慢性病所致。

专家称,资金依然是个大问题。世界银行(World Bank)最近公布的数据显示,2011年中国在卫生方面的支出占国内生产总值(GDP)的比例共计2.3%,而美国的这一比例为9.7%。

国家卫生计生委疾病预防控制局副局长王斌说,社区诊所超负荷运转,解决卫生问题的财力不足。

中国疾病预防控制中心控烟办公室副主任姜垣表示,控烟资金投入依然不足,政府去年仅划拨了人民币2,000万元(约合330万美元)资金用于控烟。

施贺德说,世界卫生组织为中国设定的目标是:到2025年将吸烟率降低至少30%,但中国完成这一任务的可能性不大。据世界卫生组织的数据,目前中国15岁以上的人群中有28%的人吸烟,数量达到3.01亿人,而且每年中国有超过100万人因吸烟诱发的疾病而死亡。美国疾病控制与预防中心的数据显示,美国的烟民人数为4,380万。

专家称,改善卫生环境的责任不应全部由政府来承担,民众应也形成更加健康的生活方式,少吃盐、多运动、克服吸烟和饮酒等不良习惯。王斌说,每个人的健康都是自己的,目前中国处于重要的窗口期。

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