【英语中国】网络时代的中国信访制度

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所属分类:双语中国

2013-12-4 08:37

小艾摘要: The Chinese government has applied a modern solution to China’s ancient tradition of petitioners travelling to Beijing to seek justice, but a new website to collect complaints seems to have retained ...
The Chinese government has applied a modern solution to China’s ancient tradition of petitioners travelling to Beijing to seek justice, but a new website to collect complaints seems to have retained many of the flaws of the old system.

The numbers of Chinese who petition in search of redress ranging from compensation for seized land to justice for murdered relatives is staggering. Over 6m Chinese submitted petitions in the legally approved way in the first 10 months of 2013, according to the bureaucracy set up to receive their complaints.

In the absence of democracy, the ancient system of petitioning is supposed to act as a social safety valve, allowing subjects to complain directly to central government about regional leaders in the provinces.

Zhang Enxi, deputy director of the State Bureau for Letters and Calls, pledged “one-stop reception, co-ordinated management, and complete resolution” as he unveiled a progress report on the new website on Thursday.

But petitions received through the website are still referred back to local authorities for resolution, a practice that puts the supplicants directly back into the hands of the people accused of causing the problem in the first place. Of the 137,000 cases submitted to the new website the bureau set up this summer, 95,000 were passed along to other bureaucracies while the rest were declared redundant or otherwise invalid.

A lot of people are quite savvy with the internet but moving it online doesn’t solve the problem of how the issues are addressed,” said Maya Wang of Human Rights Watch in Hong Kong, adding that petitioners who persist after initial complaints are not answered often face punishment.

Many people have been on the petitions trail for years, bouncing back and forth between Beijing and their hometowns without redress.

“I’ve done everything, I’ve been through all the procedures, and they still won’t resolve my case,” a weeping woman named Zhao Min from Xingtai in Hebei Province told the Financial Times while plainclothes policemen filmed an impromptu protest outside Thursday’s press conference. She has been petitioning unsuccessfully since 1997 for punishment for the crowd of drunks who killed her 16-year old son on the street outside her home.

Most petitions relate to rural land grabs or destruction of houses for urban construction, with labour and pension issues the third major category. But the desperate petitioners who flock to Beijing often bear more personal tales of unpunished murders, fatal police beatings, deaths due to medical negligence or private mines seized without compensation.

Mr Zhang said there will be a greater effort to divert legal cases to the judicial system. In China, courts are also often directly under the control of the local government but reforms announced during a policy gathering of the ruling Communist Party earlier in November included pledges for a more independent judiciary.

Chinese police vans are regularly stationed at the entrances to Tiananmen Square and other gathering points to intercept petitioners. Petitioners gathering outside the UN embassy in Beijing this month – shortly before China won a seat on the UN Human Rights Council – were so numerous that police buses were dispatched to pick them up.

Some petitioners have suffered so much injury or become so obsessive in their quest that they lose sight of their original complaint. Xu Dajin of Jiangsu Province began petitioning after thugs hassled him for complaining about mining wastewater that destroyed his tea oil trees. He got some compensation, but he thought it was not enough. The damage destroyed his chances of saving up enough money to get married, he said. “I felt despair because the government said it would be resolved but it never was,” he told the FT.

By his own admission, Mr Xu has attempted suicide while on the petitions trail. “I didn’t have a cent left, I hadn’t eaten in a few days, and I was afraid they would send me back to the local government.” He waded into a canal in Beijing but was fished out by police, who shipped him off to a mental hospital in his home town.

Chased down in a Beijing park a few weeks ago, Mr Xu is once again in a mental hospital in Jiangsu, which refuses to release him to the care of his mother and sister.

A mental health law that took effect on May 1 2013 requires admissions to be voluntary and under a qualified physician’s supervision. But Chinese Human Rights Defenders, a group that tracks activism in China, says incarceration in mental health institutions is still often used to get rid of awkward, persistent petitioners and other troublemakers.

Mr Zhang declined to give statistics on how many petitioners have been sent to mental institutions. He also denied that “legal petitioners” are held in extralegal or ‘black’ jails, the most notorious of which, Majialou in Beijing, can hold hundreds of people at a time to be collected and sent back to their home provinces.

中国政府将一种现代手段应用于上访者跑到北京寻求正义的古老传统。但一个收集投诉的新网站似乎保留了旧制度的许多缺陷。

从要求得到征地补偿,到为被害的亲戚伸张正义,中国上访者的人数多得惊人。据负责受理上访的有关部门统计,2013年前10个月,超过600万中国人通过合法渠道递交了投诉。

在缺乏民主的情况下,古老的上访制度被当作社会的安全阀,允许人民直接向中央政府表达对地方领导人的不满。

上周四,中国国家信访局(State Bureau for Letters and Calls)副局长张恩玺在发布新网站的进展报告时,承诺实行“一站式接待、一条龙办理、一揽子解决”。

但是,信访局网站收到的投诉仍然被送回地方政府处理,这种做法将上访者直接送回其投诉对象的手中。在中国国家信访局今年夏天设立的新网站受理的13.7万件投诉中,9.5万件被转送和交办给有关的地方和部门,其余被列为重复或者无效投诉。

人权观察(Human Rights Watch)驻香港的研究员阿莲(Maya Wang)说:“许多人对网上投诉的操作方法相当熟悉,但网上受理并没有改变处理问题的方式。”她还表示,首轮投诉未获答复、但仍坚持上访的人往往面临处罚。

许多人在上访的道路上已跋涉多年,在北京和家乡之间来来回回好几趟,但他们的诉求并未得到理睬。

“该做的我都做了。我经过了所有程序,但他们还是没有解决我的案子。”来自河北省邢台市的妇女赵敏(音译)上周四哭着对英国《金融时报》表示。当时,便衣警察正在对新闻发布会场外人们自发举行的一场抗议进行摄像。赵敏从1997年起一直在上访,为的是要求政府主持公道,惩罚在她家外打死她16岁儿子的一群醉汉,但一直没有结果。

多数投诉涉及农村土地被占和城建拆房的问题,劳动和养老金问题构成第三个大类。但聚集到北京的绝望的上访者往往有着切肤之痛的遭遇:凶犯逍遥法外的杀人案件、被警察殴打致死、医疗过失致死,或是私有的矿被没收却得不到补偿。

张恩玺表示,今后会加大力度,把涉法涉诉信访纳入法治轨道解决。在中国,法庭也常常是受地方政府直接控制的,但今年11月中共中央十八届三中全会承诺推行改革,建设更加独立的司法体系。

中国警方的巡逻车经常布置在天安门广场的各个入口和其他聚集点,以拦截上访者。上月,在中国赢得联合国人权理事会(UN Human Rights Council)席位前不久,聚集在联合国(UN)驻华系统门前的上访者如此多,以至于警方出动警用巴士把这些人拉走。

一些上访者遭遇太多伤害,或是对自己的诉求如此执着,以至于忘记了自己当初要抱怨什么。江苏的徐达金(音译)最初投诉的问题是采矿废水毁坏了他家的油茶树,为此他受到一伙暴徒的骚扰,之后便开始上访。他得到了一些赔偿,但他觉得这还不够。他说,茶树被毁,破坏了他积蓄足够的钱用来成家的机会。“我感到绝望,因为政府说问题会解决的,但从来没得到解决。”他对英国《金融时报》表示。

徐达金承认,他在上访过程中曾企图自杀。“我身上一分钱也没有,好几天没吃饭,我怕他们会把我送回地方政府。”他涉水进入北京一条运河,但被警方打捞了上来,并被遣送到老家的一家精神病医院。

几周前,徐达金在北京一处公园内被抓,他再次被送进江苏的一家精神病院。院方拒绝将他交给母亲和妹妹照料。

2013年5月1日起施行的中国《精神卫生法》规定,精神障碍的住院治疗实行自愿原则,并在一位有执业资格的医生的监护下进行。但追踪中国维权活动的团体——中国人权捍卫者(Chinese Human Rights Defenders)表示,为了摆脱难办、固执的上访者和其他麻烦制造者,将他们关押在精神卫生机构内的做法仍经常被使用。

关于有多少上访者被送入精神病院的问题,张恩玺拒绝给出统计数字。他也否认“合法上访者”被关押在非法或“黑色”监狱的说法——其中最臭名昭著的是位于北京马家楼地区的接济服务中心,这里可以同时收容几百人,随后将他们遣送回原籍。

译者/何黎

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