【英语中国】拜登批评中国划设防空识别区

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2013-12-5 08:52

小艾摘要: Joe Biden, the US vice-president, yesterday sharply criticised China’s declaration of a new air defence zone over the East China Sea, but stopped short of joining Japanese leaders in demanding the zo ...
Joe Biden, the US vice-president, yesterday sharply criticised China’s declaration of a new air defence zone over the East China Sea, but stopped short of joining Japanese leaders in demanding the zone be scrapped.

In Tokyo on an Asian tour that will take him to Beijing tomorrow, Mr Biden sought to reassure Japan, the US’s most important military ally in Asia, that it would defend the country against any overt aggression from an increasingly assertive China.

But even as he reiterated that the US was “deeply concerned” China’s declaration of a wide air defence identification zone (ADIZ) last month risked “accidents and miscalculations”, he did not back Japan’s call for it to be scrapped.

“I told the prime minister that we will remain steadfast in our alliance commitments,” Mr Biden told a news conference after meeting Shinzo Abe, the Japanese prime minister. He also urged Japan and China to improve communication to avoid escalating tensions.

Japan and China are locked in a stand-off over a group of Japanese-administered islands, called the Senkaku in Japan and the Diaoyu in China. These fall within the Chinese ADIZ, which covers a large part of the East China Sea and overlaps with a similar decades-old zone established by Japan, as well as perimeters maintained by Taiwan and South Korea.

Mr Biden is facing the difficult task of reassuring US allies while avoiding provoking Beijing or making demands that Chinese leaders would be unwilling or unable to meet – whether out of a surfeit of confidence or a fear of appearing weak and provoking domestic criticism.

The Obama administration’s handling of the ADIZ issue is sure to be seen as part of a broader test of its seriousness about remaining a strong power in the Pacific as China rises. The White House announced a “pivot” to Asia two years ago but critics have questioned whether the US was serious about putting its might behind the rhetoric.

Before Mr Biden’s comments, a state department spokeswoman in Washington called on China to “rescind the procedures” attached to the zone. Beijing has warned it could take “defensive emergency measures” against aircraft that enter without sending flight plans to the Chinese authorities, including aircraft that do not intend to land in or fly over China.

Other countries with ADIZs, including the US and Japan, typically exempt from identification procedures aircraft that are passing through.

Japan has gone further in its demands. Japanese officials told local media ahead of Mr Biden’s visit that they hoped the US would join them in calling for the removal of China’s zone.

Itsunori Onodera, the defence minister, on Friday called for the zone to be “rescinded as soon as possible”

The US flew B-52 bombers through the zone last week to demonstrate it considered the area to be international air space. The Pentagon is also deploying new advanced surveillance aircraft to Japan, which will monitor submarines in the increasingly contested waters around China.

Still, some in Japan were disappointed when Washington told US commercial airlines to abide by the regulations for safety reasons, in contrast to Tokyo’s request to Japanese airlines not to comply with the rules.

美国副总统乔?拜登(Joe Biden)昨日严厉批评中国划设东中国海防空识别区之举,但没有像日本领导人那样要求中国撤销防空识别区。

拜登是在他的亚洲之行的第一站东京做出上述表态的,他试图让美国在亚洲的最重要军事盟友日本放心,重申美国将协防日本,反击日益强硬的中国的任何公然攻击行动。拜登今日将抵达北京。

不过,尽管拜登重申美国“深度关切”中国上月划设的大范围防空识别区可能引发“不测和误判”,但他并未支持日本方面要求撤销这个识别区的呼吁。

“我已告诉首相,我们的同盟承诺坚如磐石,”拜登会晤日本首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)之后在新闻发布会上表示。他还敦促日本和中国加强沟通,避免紧张升级。

围绕着日本管辖的一个群岛——日本称尖阁诸岛(Senkaku),中国称钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿,日本和中国陷入了对峙。中国的防空识别区覆盖含这个群岛在内的东中国海大片区域,并与日本在几十年前设立的防空识别圈以及台湾和韩国的防空识别区部分重叠。

拜登肩负着一个艰难的任务:在让美国的盟友放心的同时,还要避免触怒北京,或者避免提出中国领导人(无论是出于信心过头还是出于担心示弱招致国内批评)不愿或不能满足的要求。

奥巴马(Obama)政府对中国防空识别区问题的处理,必然被外界用来考察其在中国崛起之际对保持美国的太平洋强国地位有多认真。白宫在两年前宣布了将重心转向亚洲的战略,但批评人士质疑美国是否真的要用实力来支撑这一言论。

拜登发表上述言论之前,美国国务院一名女发言人在华盛顿呼吁中国“取消”防空识别区所附带的程序要求。北京方面警告称,中方可能对未向中国有关部门提交飞行计划就进入防空识别区的飞机采取“防御性紧急处置措施”,包括那些无意在中国着陆、甚至无意进入中国领空的飞机。

划设防空识别区的其它国家,包括美国和日本,一般不要求经过其防空识别区的飞机遵循相应的识别程序。

日本则提出了更进一步的要求。日本官员在拜登抵达之前告诉本国媒体,他们希望美国加入日本的行列,呼吁中国撤销防空识别区。

日本防卫大臣小野寺五典(Itsunori Onodera)上周五呼吁中国“尽快撤销”防空识别区。

上周,美国出动B-52轰炸机不打招呼就飞越中国的防空识别区,以表明美国认为那里是国际空域的立场。此外,五角大楼正考虑将先进的新型反潜侦察机部署到日本,以监视在中国周边争议日益升温的水域活动的潜艇。

尽管如此,日本仍有人对美国感到失望,因为美国官方告知本国航空公司基于安全考量遵守中国防空识别区的相关规定,这与日本政府要求本国航空公司不遵守这些规定的做法形成对比。

译者/何黎

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