【英语中国】上海学生在国际测试中夺冠

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2013-12-11 08:46

小艾摘要: Teenagers in Shanghai and Singapore have retained their leading position in an international test of maths, science and reading, according to new results which cast doubt on teaching methods in higher ...
Teenagers in Shanghai and Singapore have retained their leading position in an international test of maths, science and reading, according to new results which cast doubt on teaching methods in higher-spending systems such as the UK and US.

The OECD’s Pisa tests – taken by more than half a million 15 year-olds across 65 countries – show East Asian countries surging ahead while traditionally strong Scandinavian countries plummeted down the league. The UK and US remained in the middle-rankings, around the OECD average, despite spending more than other countries on their education of six to 15 year-olds.

Accelerating declines in maths scores across Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark caused particular surprise.

The political debate is most intense in Sweden, which fell the fastest of any country over the past decade in the Pisa maths results – and many on the left were quick to point the blame at its free schools, much coveted by the UK’s Conservative party.

Stefan L?fven, leader of the centre-left Social Democrats, called the results a “national crisis”. He added: “We are losing something in Sweden that we have rightly been proud of. I am genuinely worried.”

The fall from grace was just as painful in Finland, which ranked second in the world for maths a decade ago but is now 12th, behind its close Baltic neighbour Estonia.

Perhaps the most unexpected response came from table-leader Shanghai, where the education system has come under continued criticised from parents, students, and government officials for focussing too much on rote learning.

Xiong Bingqi, vice-president of the 21st Century Education Research Institute, a state-recognised NGO, said that even Shanghai students’ strong performance might appear impressive, Western countries should not seek to emulate this teaching model.

“Scoring high in the PISA test should not be seen as a point of pride for the Chinese educational system, but a reflection on its flaws. It actually means nothing to compare the results of students from totally different educational models and different study hours,” he said.

一项考察青少年数学、理科和阅读能力的国际测试的最新结果出炉,上海和新加坡的青少年继续保持领先,英国和美国等教育支出较高的国家则被质疑教学方法有问题。

来自65个国家的逾50万青少年参加了经合组织(OECD)筹划的本次国际学生能力评估计划(Pisa)测试。测试结果显示,东亚国家的成绩突飞猛进,而过去表现突出的北欧国家名次下落。英国和美国的成绩仍然居中,处于经合组织国家平均水平,尽管这两个国家对6至15岁孩子的教育支出高于其他国家。

令人尤为惊讶的是,芬兰、瑞典、挪威和丹麦青少年数学成绩加速下滑。

瑞典是过去10年中Pisa数学成绩下滑最快的国家,这一现象在该国引发的政治辩论也最为激烈。许多左翼人士很快将矛头指向“自由学校”(free school)体系,而这种体系正是英国保守党羡慕的。

瑞典中左翼社会民主党领导人斯蒂凡?洛芬(Stefan L?fven)称此次Pisa结果为一场“全国危机”。他补充说:“瑞典正在失落某种东西,这种东西曾让我们理所当然地引以为傲。我深切地感到担忧。”

失落曾经的荣耀对芬兰而言同样痛苦。这个国家的数学成绩10年前曾经排名世界第2,如今排名第12,落后于波罗的海近邻爱沙尼亚。

本次冠军上海的反应或许最令人意外。中国的教育体制不断受到家长、学生和官员的批评,称其过于注重死记硬背。

官方认可的非政府组织——21世纪教育研究院(21st Century Education Research Institute)的副院长熊丙奇说,上海学生此次的突出表现或许令人瞩目,但西方国家不应试图效仿这种教学模式。

他说:“在Pisa测试中取得好成绩,不应被视为中国教育体制自豪的理由,而应被视为其缺陷的体现。各国学生面对完全不同的教育模式、学习时间也完全不同,比较他们的成绩其实没有任何意义。”

译者/阑天

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