【英语中国】中国的创造力正在提升 Time to take Chinese creativity seriously – or lose out

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所属分类:双语中国

2014-1-9 15:15

小艾摘要: Beijing and Shanghai are like New York and Chicago in the 1890s: excitable, rumbustious and slightly crazy. Fortunes are made and lost quickly. Local government officials are deeply involved in proper ...
Time to take Chinese creativity seriously – or lose out
Beijing and Shanghai are like New York and Chicago in the 1890s: excitable, rumbustious and slightly crazy. Fortunes are made and lost quickly. Local government officials are deeply involved in property and business. The families and companies that succeed become the new aristocracy.

The Europeans looked at emerging America and found it slightly vulgar. They did not like the way art mixed with business. I suspect many feel the same about China. They say Chinese creativity is an oxymoron. They believe the country lacks the west’s bravura and risk-taking. They dismiss it as a nation of copiers.

But walk the streets, or check the output figures, and you see Chinese creativity on the march. Once reliant on low-cost manufacturing, China is now catching attention for its art, design, digital media and fashion.

I estimate that 10 times more fashion stores opened in Shanghai than in New York last year. BK Design, a womenswear shop in Wuxi city, Jiangsu province, could hold its own in Brooklyn. The most expensive fashion store to open in London last year – at a cost of £30m – was China’s Bosideng.

Tencent – the Hong Kong-listed company that is one of China’s top three internet groups – is ingenious in catering to China’s 600m netizens, twice as many as live in America. Sales at Jack Ma’s online retailer Alibaba exceed those of Amazon and eBay combined. Mr Ma is planning an initial public offering in New York; the valuation is likely to exceed that of Facebook, partly because Alibaba offers a wider range of mobile services.

A surprising fact about China’s creative industries is the extent of private initiatives. Those fashion stores are all private. Most creative start-ups receive less state support than their equivalents in the west.

The complaint that the Chinese are a nation of copiers is half-true. They are astonishing copiers. They copy for the same reasons and with the same skill as did the British, Germans, French and Americans when they industrialised. Copying is often the best way to learn. In the 20th century, Europe and America went on to produce the greatest art, literature and design, and China may well do the same this century.

Yet anyone who uses Tencent’s WeChat messaging app or sees the Pritzker Prize-winning Wang Shu’s Art Academy in Hangzhou and says everything is copied is just not looking. It is true the Chinese tend to copy more than the west thinks polite or legal. One Chongqing company allegedly copied a whole complex by architect Zaha Hadid. This is reprehensible – but again, the west should remember its own history. Architects from London to Washington happily copied Palladio.

In my experience, while Beijing imposes shackles in some sectors, creativity and innovation are as highly valued in China as elsewhere. But the west’s scepticism means opportunities are being missed. Beijing knows it must import new thinking to manage the biggest building boom in history. Prime Minister Li Keqiang says the way China manages its cities will determine both quality of life and economic resilience. China needs masterplanners, urban transport specialists, “smart city” designers, landscape architects, low-energy engineers and interior designers. The west has a good record here. But last month’s meeting on creative cities led by Mr Li and Europe’s José Manuel Barroso was disappointingly short of Europeans with new ideas.

It is the same in film. James Cameron, the film director who used motion capture to make Avatar, is working with a new studio complex in the city of Tianjin, outside Beijing, on his next movie. I have asked several western motion-capture companies if they are interested in China; none has made the move.

The companies that move in successfully have four principles. They focus on areas where they have a clear advantage. They open an office – preferably a big one, since the Chinese are impressed by size. They know how to mix their own skills with local talent.

And they visit as much as possible because business in China is based on personal relationships, just like the US in the 1890s. Like America, China is experimenting with individual freedoms, the role of the state, the nature of risk and the kind of society that results. It is a conversation worth having, and working together in a creative business is the best place to start.

The writer is the author of ‘The Creative Economy’

北京和上海就好像十九世纪九十年代的纽约和芝加哥:容易兴奋,喧闹,还有一点点疯狂。财富被创造出来又迅速失去。地方政府官员深入参与地产以及商业活动。获得成功的家族以及企业成为了新的贵族阶层。

欧洲人曾经在观察新兴的美国时,认为它有那么一点粗俗。他们不喜欢美国将艺术和商业混在一起的做法。我怀疑很多人对中国有同样的感觉。他们觉得中国创意这个词是一种矛盾说法。他们认为中国缺乏西方大胆尝试的勇气和冒险精神。他们轻蔑地把中国看作一个抄袭大国。

但在街道上走走,或者查看一下产出数据,你会发现中国的创造力正在提升。中国曾一度依赖低成本的制造业,现在则因艺术、设计、数字媒体以及时尚产业而引起世人关注。

我估计,去年在上海新开业的时尚商店数量是纽约的十倍以上。江苏省无锡市的女装品牌店BK Design可以在布鲁克林站稳脚跟。去年在伦敦开业的造价最贵的时尚商店属于中国品牌波司登(Bosideng),波司登伦敦店的总造价高达3000万英镑。

在香港上市的中国互联网三巨头之一腾讯(Tencent)非常善于迎合中国6亿网民的需求——中国的网民人数是美国总人口的两倍。马云(Jack Ma)创立的网络零售平台阿里巴巴(Alibaba)的销售额超过了亚马逊(Amazon)和eBay的总和。马云计划让阿里巴巴在纽约上市,该公司的估值很可能将超过Facebook,部分原因在于阿里巴巴提供的移动服务范围更广。

关于中国创意产业一个令人吃惊的现象是,私营企业发展的积极性是如此之高。上文提到的时尚商店都属私人所有。中国绝大多数创意初创企业获得的政府支持比西方的同行们少。

有关中国是一个抄袭大国的抱怨并不完全符合事实。事实上中国人是令人惊叹的模仿者。他们模仿的动因和技巧与英国人、德国人、法国人以及美国人在实现工业化时一样。模仿通常是最好的学习方式。二十世纪,欧洲和美国开始产出最伟大的艺术、文学和设计作品,而中国在本世纪内很可能也会有同样的成就。

但如果有人用过腾讯的微信(WeChat),或者参观过由王澍设计、获得了普利兹克奖(Pritzker Prize)的杭州中国美术学院新校区,却仍然声称中国的一切都来自抄袭,那么这些人根本就没有用心去看。确实,中国人的模仿倾向超过了西方人认为礼貌或合法的程度。一家重庆公司被指抄袭了出自建筑师扎哈?哈迪德(Zaha Hadid)的一整座大楼设计。这种做法应当受到谴责——但西方也不应忘记自己的历史。从伦敦到华盛顿的建筑师都兴高采烈地抄袭过帕拉弟奥(Palladio)的设计。

据我所知,虽然中国政府在某些领域施行了限制措施,但中国和其他国家一样高度重视创意和创新。而西方的怀疑主义态度意味着机会被白白错失。中国政府明白,必须引入新的思路以管理好有史以来规模最大的建设热潮。中国总理李克强表示,中国的城市管理模式将决定民众的生活质量以及经济的生命力。中国需要规划大师、城市交通专家、“智能城市”设计师、景观建筑师、节能工程师以及市内装饰设计师。而西方在这些领域拥有丰富的经验。但令人失望的是,上个月由李克强总理与欧盟委员会主席若泽?曼努埃尔?巴罗佐(José Manuel Barroso)主持的创意城市会议上,欧洲人没能拿出有新意的构想。

在电影行业也是一样。运用动作捕捉技术拍出了影片《阿凡达》(Avatar)的导演詹姆斯?卡梅隆(James Cameron),正在天津市一座新建的大型摄影棚中制作自己的下一部电影。我曾问过数家西方动作捕捉技术公司,对中国有没有兴趣;但到目前为止尚无一家公司在中国市场上有所动作。

那些成功进入中国市场的公司有以下四项特点。他们将精力集中在自身拥有明确优势的领域。他们在中国设立办公室——规模大一点比较好,因为中国人以大为美。他们知道如何将自身技术与中国当地人才结合起来。

他们还尽可能多地造访中国,因为中国的商务往来是以人际关系为基础的,就像十九世纪九十年代的美国那样。当前中国正在个人自由、政府角色、风险本质、以及由此形成的社会类型方面做着试验,这也和美国一样。这是一场值得进行的对话,而在创意产业展开合作是一个完美的出发点。

注:本文作者著有《创意经济》(The Creative Economy)一书。

译者/马拉

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