【英语中国】中国P2P贷款产业陷入困境 Reverse in China peer to peer lending

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2014-1-14 09:03

小艾摘要: China’s peer-to-peer lending boom is beginning to turn to bust. Borrowers are defaulting on loans in a sign of how higher rates generated by reduced liquidity are causing stress in the riskiest corne ...
Reverse in China peer to peer lending
China’s peer-to-peer lending boom is beginning to turn to bust. Borrowers are defaulting on loans in a sign of how higher rates generated by reduced liquidity are causing stress in the riskiest corners of the country’s financial markets.

Dozens of the P2P lending websites that sprang up in recent years have shut down. The biggest companies are unscathed, but the rapid collapse of smaller rivals highlights the difficulties in the Chinese micro-lending industry as economic growth slows and monetary conditions tighten.

It is a dramatic reversal of fortune for China’s P2P websites, which connect people wanting to invest money with those looking to borrow small amounts.

Although it accounts for a tiny fraction of the country’s total loans, China’s P2P lending market grew from $30m in 2009 to $940m in 2012 and is on track to reach $7.8bn by 2015, according to research published last year by Celent consulting.

Of the nearly 1,000 P2P companies operating in China, 58 went bankrupt in the final quarter last year, says Online Lending House, a web portal that tracks the industry. Several more have run into trouble this year.

Xu Hongwei, chief executive of Online Lending House, said: “The main reasons are the intense competition in the industry, the liquidity squeeze and a loss of faith by investors.”

He estimated that 80-90 per cent of China’s P2P companies might go bust.

Some people believe the industry has expanded too quickly and with insufficient oversight.

Roger Ying, founder of Pandai, one of the websites that is still active, said: “A lot of P2Ps have blindly copied each other and don’t have a business plan that is robust enough to react to market changes.”

Signs of distress emerged in the second half of 2013, when the central bank withheld liquidity from money markets, fuelling a jump in lending rates.

Additional reporting by Emma Dong

中国个人对个人贷款(peer-to-peer lending,简称P2P贷款)繁荣正开始变成低迷。借款人纷纷出现贷款违约,突显流动性降低所推高的利率正在中国金融市场风险最高的角落形成压力。

数十个近年兴起的P2P贷款网站已经关闭。规模较大的P2P贷款企业仍安然无恙,然而规模较小竞争对手的迅速倒闭,凸显出中国小额借贷产业随着中国经济增长放缓及货币状况收紧而遇到种种困难。

这是中国P2P贷款网站命运的戏剧性逆转——这类网站将希望投资的人与寻求小额贷款的人联系在一起。

根据咨询公司Celent去年发表的研究结果,尽管中国P2P贷款市场规模只占中国总贷款额的一个零头,但这一市场的规模已从2009年的3000万美元增长到了2012年的9.4亿美元,到2015年有望达到78亿美元。

跟踪这一产业的门户网站网贷之家(Online Lending House)表示,去年第四季度中国近1000家P2P贷款企业中有58家破产。还有几家今年已经遇到麻烦。

网贷之家首席执行官徐宏伟表示:“主要原因是该行业激烈的竞争、流动性收紧以及投资者信心的丧失。”

他估计中国P2P贷款企业可能会破产80%到90%。

有人认为该产业扩张太过迅速而又缺乏监督。

目前仍十分活跃的P2P贷款网站之一盼贷网(Pandai)创始人霍中皓(Roger Ying)表示:“许多P2P贷款网站盲目照抄其他网站,缺乏足够稳健的商业规划,无法应对市场变化。”

2013年下半年P2P贷款产业的困境开始浮出水面,当时中国央行从货币市场抽走一部分流动性,大幅推高了贷款利率。

董慧(Emma Dong)补充报道

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