【英语中国】分析:中国成全球最大货物贸易国 China overtakes US as world’s largest goods trader

  • A+
所属分类:双语中国

2014-1-14 09:29

小艾摘要: China became the biggest trader in goods for the first time last year, overtaking the US for all of 2013 and finishing the year with record trade figures in December.Coming fast on the heels of China ...
China overtakes US as world’s largest goods trader
China became the biggest trader in goods for the first time last year, overtaking the US for all of 2013 and finishing the year with record trade figures in December.

Coming fast on the heels of China taking over as the largest oil importer, the shift is another milestone as the country takes its place among the most powerful nations. Trade with the rest of Asia and increasing flows with the Middle East represent a shift in power away from the US, the largest economy.

The total value of China’s imports and exports in 2013 was $4.16tn, a 7.6 per cent increase from a year earlier on a renminbi-adjusted basis, according to figures released by the Chinese government on last friday.

The US will release its full-year figures in February but its total imports and exports of goods amounted to $3.57tn in the 11 months from January to November 2013, making it a virtual certainty that China is now the biggest goods trading nation.

Some historians argue China was the largest trading nation during the Qing dynasty, which lasted from 1644-1912, despite the ambivalence of Chinese emperors towards foreign trade.

“This is a landmark milestone for our nation’s foreign trade development,” said Zheng Yuesheng, chief statistician of the customs administration.

Mr Zheng said he expected a stronger showing in 2014, thanks to an improving world economy, structural reforms in China and a lowered outlook for commodity prices, which would help offset rising costs of labour and financing for manufacturers.

But there were a few clouds on the horizon, namely a decline in foreign investment in manufacturing, and markedly slower growth in components brought to China to be assembled and re-exported. “We all know that one characteristic of the processing trade is to first import then export, so lower growth in processing imports shows that in the near future, the outlook for processing exports is not too optimistic,” Mr Zheng added.

About a third of China’s trade involves assembly and re-export of components produced elsewhere, although that is rapidly dwindling as industries move their entire supply chain to China.

China’s official figures show the processing trade made up 32.6 per cent of total imports and exports in 2013, a drop from 34.8 per cent the year before.

According to the World Trade Organisation, the total value of China’s goods trade in 2012 trailed the US figure by a mere $15bn.

China’s rise to dominance of world trade has happened over a very short period, with the value of Chinese trade roughly doubling every four years over the past three decades.

The country became the biggest goods exporter in 2009 and Chinese imports and exports account for more than 10 per cent of global goods trade, up from 3 per cent in 2000.

There has also been an enormous shift in the kinds of things China exports – from textiles, apparel and oil products to high-tech machinery and electronics.

In December, Chinese trade reached a record monthly high of $390bn, with exports increasing 4.3 per cent from a year earlier to $208bn and imports up 8.3 per cent from the same month in 2013 to $182bn.

For the full year, exports totalled $2.21tn, an increase of 7.9 per cent on a renminbi-adjusted basis. That narrowly missed a target of 8 per cent full-year export growth set at the start of 2013 by the Chinese government. Imports rose 7.3 per cent from a year earlier to reach $1.95tn in 2013. The country’s trade surplus widened 12.8 per cent to $260bn as exports to its largest traditional markets in the US and Europe recovered.

Total US exports were up 5.2 per cent in the first 11 months of last year, led by rising sales to China, which expanded 8.7 per cent from the same period a year earlier. The US still has a big lead over China when it comes to trade in services.

China’s trade in services in 2012 was about $471bn, less than half of the US figure of $1.07tn.

中国去年首次成为全球最大的货物贸易国,2013年全年货物贸易总值超过美国,并以创纪录的12月贸易数字结束了这一年。

中国在不久前刚成为全球最大的石油进口国。成为全球最大货物贸易国是又一块里程碑,标志着中国跻身全球最强大国家之列。中国与亚洲其他国家的贸易以及与中东不断扩大的贸易流动标志着,全球经济实力发生了变化,最大经济体美国的经济实力有所下滑。

根据中国政府上周五发布的数据,中国2013年进出口总值达到4.16万亿美元,经人民币汇率因素调整后同比增长7.6%。

美国将在2月份发布其去年全年的贸易数据。不过,在2013年1月至11月的11个月里,美国货物进出口总为3.57万亿美元,这意味着中国现在基本已经肯定是全球最大的货物贸易国。

一些历史学家主张,中国在清代(1644年至1912年)一直是全球最大的贸易国,尽管当时的中国皇帝对外贸抱有矛盾心理。

“这对我们国家外贸的发展可以说是个标志性的里程碑,”中国海关总署综合统计司司长郑跃声表示。

郑跃声说,他预期2014年中国会有更强劲的贸易表现,这得益于世界经济不断好转、中国推进结构性改革以及大宗商品价格走低,后者将部分抵消制造业企业劳动力成本和融资成本的不断上涨。

但是,地平线上也有几块乌云,包括制造业的外商投资下降、以及到中国进行零部件组装和再出口的加工业务的增长明显放缓。郑跃声补充称:“大家都知道,加工贸易的特点是先进口后出口,加工贸易增长的低迷也预示着未来一段时间加工贸易的出口将不是很乐观。”

中国有大约三分之一的贸易涉及对在其他地方生产的零部件进行组装和再出口,尽管这一比例正在快速下降,因为不少行业正将整条供应链转移到中国。

中国官方数字显示,加工贸易在2013年占进出口总值的32.6%,低于上年的34.8%。

世界贸易组织(WTO)数据显示,中国2012年的货物贸易总值仅比美国少150亿美元。

中国在世界贸易中崛起并占据主导地位,是在一个很短的时期内发生的。过去30年里,中国的贸易额大约每四年就翻一番。

中国在2009年成为全球最大货物出口国。目前,中国的进出口占全球货物贸易的10%以上,远高于2000年的3%。

中国出口的产品类别也出现巨大转变,即从纺织品、服装和石油产品,转向高科技机械和电子产品。

去年12月,中国贸易总值创下3900亿美元的月度新高,其中出口同比增长4.3%,至2080亿美元,进口同比增长8.3%,至1820亿美元。

就全年而言,出口总值达到2.21万亿美元,经人民币汇率因素调整后增长7.9%,略低于中国政府在2013年初设定的8%的全年出口增长目标。2013年中国进口增长7.3%,达到1.95万亿美元。中国的贸易顺差扩大12.8%,至2600亿美元,对美国和欧洲这两个传统上最大市场的出口有所回升。

美国的总出口在去年头11个月增长5.2%,这是由对华出口增长带动的——美国对华出口同比增长8.7%。美国在服务贸易领域仍遥遥领先于中国。

中国2012年的服务贸易约为4710亿美元,不到美国1.07万亿美元服务贸易额的一半。

译者/和风

本文关键字:双语阅读,小艾英语,双语网站,双语中国,实时资讯,互联网新闻,ERWAS,行业解析,创业指导,营销策略,英语学习,可以双语阅读的网站!
  • 我的微信
  • 扫一扫加关注
  • weinxin
  • 微信公众号
  • 扫一扫加关注
  • weinxin

发表评论

:?: :razz: :sad: :evil: :!: :smile: :oops: :grin: :eek: :shock: :???: :cool: :lol: :mad: :twisted: :roll: :wink: :idea: :arrow: :neutral: :cry: :mrgreen: