【英语中国】美国对中国执行WTO裁决状况发起挑战 US challenges China over compliance with WTO ruling

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2014-1-16 08:47

小艾摘要: The United States has for the first time challenged China’s compliance with a World Trade Organisation ruling, claiming the country had failed to make changes ordered by a WTO dispute resolution pane ...
US challenges China over compliance with WTO ruling
The United States has for the first time challenged China’s compliance with a World Trade Organisation ruling, claiming the country had failed to make changes ordered by a WTO dispute resolution panel.

The dispute alleges China refused to comply with a 2012 ruling that barred the country from imposing duties on a type of heavy steel manufactured in the US. The complaint asserted that the inaction was costing US companies about $250m per year.

“We have requested consultations with China on its failure to bring antidumping and countervailing duties on US exports of GOES (grain oriented flat-rolled electrical steel) into compliance with its WTO obligations”, said Mike Froman, US trade representative, on Monday.

The original ruling was issued in late 2012 by a WTO dispute panel. It found that China’s move to impose the duties was not consistent with international trade law and ruled in favour of the US.

“Unfortunately, it appears that China has not corrected those inconsistencies. Today’s action shows that when the United States steps up to the plate on trade enforcement, we will follow through”, Mr Froman said.

GOES are a type of high-tech, magnetic steel primarily used in electric transformers and nuclear reactors.

The challenge comes as President Barack Obama’s attempts to implement an ambitious trade agenda. His administration has urged Congress to pass “fast-track” legislation to facilitate the passage of both the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership – two of the largest trade negotiations in history.

Mr Obama’s push, however, is being met with resistance from congressional Democrats who remain sceptical about the benefits of such agreements, particularly those in “rust-belt” states that have experienced losses in manufacturing due to previous trade liberalisation.

The Obama Administration has also emphasised using enforcement mechanisms as a means to promote the benefits of trade and to combat perceptions that trade has adverse effects on jobs and the economy.

“It’s important for the public to understand we are taking these steps”, said a USTR attorney working on the case.

US trade enforcement cases and actions have more than doubled since Mr Obama took office in 2009.

美国首次对中国执行世界贸易组织(WTO)裁决状况发起挑战,称中国未能落实WTO争端解决小组要求做出的改变。

美方在申诉书中称,中国拒绝遵守2012年一项禁止对美国制造的取向电工钢(GOES)征收关税的裁决。美方断言称,这一不作为正导致美国企业每年损失大约2.5亿美元。

“我们已要求同中国展开磋商,讨论其未能在美国输华的取向电工钢的反倾销、反补贴关税问题上遵守WTO义务的情况,”美国贸易代表迈克?弗罗曼(Mike Froman)周一表示。

此项裁决是由世贸组织争端解决机制下的一个专家组在2012年末作出的。该小组调查发现,中国征收关税之举不符合国际贸易法规,并据此作出有利于美国的裁决。

“遗憾的是,中国似乎并没有纠正这些不符合规则的做法。今天的行动表明,美国在贸易执法方面是会追究到底的,”弗罗曼表示。

取向电工钢是一种具有优良磁性能的高科技钢材,主要用于制造电力变压器和核反应堆。

美国发起这一挑战之际,巴拉克?奥巴马(Barack Obama)总统正试图落实一项雄心勃勃的贸易议程。他的政府已敦促国会通过“快速通道”(fast-track)立法,以确保跨太平洋伙伴关系(TPP)和跨大西洋贸易与投资伙伴关系(Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership)——史上规模最大的两项贸易谈判——顺利通过。

然而,奥巴马的努力正遭遇国会民主党人的阻力,他们仍对此类协定的效益表示怀疑,特别是那些来自所谓“锈带”(rust-belt)的议员,以往的贸易自由化曾使这些地方失去制造业就业岗位。

奥巴马政府还强调使用执法机制,以此为手段来保障贸易的效益,并对抗“贸易对就业和经济有不利影响”的负面看法。

“重要的是让公众了解我们正在采取这些步骤,”办理本案的一名美国贸易代表律师表示。

自奥巴马2009年上任以来,美国发起的关于贸易执法的案子及行动增加了一倍以上。

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