【英语中国】中国调整棉花储备政策 China to unwind failed cotton hoarding programme at a loss

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所属分类:双语中国

2014-1-22 09:15

小艾摘要: China is abandoning a stockpiling programme that has seen the nation run up an outsized hoard of cotton that it must now sell at a loss, pledging instead to switch to a subsidy system for cotton farme ...
China to unwind failed cotton hoarding programme at a loss
China is abandoning a stockpiling programme that has seen the nation run up an outsized hoard of cotton that it must now sell at a loss, pledging instead to switch to a subsidy system for cotton farmers this year.

Beijing’s effort to use the state reserves system to maintain cotton plantings and thus a secure supply of raw materials for textile mills has backfired spectacularly. Higher prices meant that cotton flowed to the state reserves – which now by some estimates account for half of world cotton stocks – while denying mills the supply they needed.

The No. 1 central document, which typically lays out priorities for the agricultural sector, called for a price subsidy trial for cotton grown in Xinjiang – where it is a major product of the quasi-military Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps – and for soyabeans grown in northeast China, home to most of the nation’s soya grown for human consumption.

The absence of any reference to cotton reserves in a policy document that spoke of the continued stockpiling of wheat, rice, corn, rapeseed and sugar points to the quiet abandonment of the cotton hoarding programme. The reserves body earlier indicated that it would not buy more cotton, after purchasing 5.5m tonnes since the beginning of the 2013 harvest.

“Without the support policy, acreage in Henan and Shandong provinces will likely drop. But Beijing is not too worried if it does; with so many stocks there is no need to encourage planting,” said one analyst who asked not to be named.

China’s total cotton output last year was about 6.3m tonnes, down 7.7 per cent, the National Bureau of Statistics said yesterday. Output from Xinjiang province was unchanged at 3.5m tonnes.

In an attempt to stabilise cotton supplies and soothe restive farmers in Xinjiang, in 2011 China set a cotton price floor and started stockpiling the material. But the policy backfired by diverting raw materials from textile mills, which opted in desperation to import cotton yarn.

The soya reserves programme, which has had far less of an impact on the market, was set up a few years ago after lobbying by growers in the northeast, home to most of the large mechanised farms in the country.

China imports the vast majority of the soya it uses for cooking oil and animal feed, but requires that tofu be produced from the non-GMO soya that is grown at home.

A representative for the Heilongjiang Soybean Industry Association said his group hoped that some sort of improved stockpiling policy would remain in place.

Additional reporting by Zhao Tianqi

中国正在放弃一个棉花储备计划,承诺今年将转而实行一项棉农补贴制度。储备计划使中国积累了过量的棉花,这些棉花如今必须以亏损价格出售。

中国政府试图用国家储备体系来维持棉花种植,从而保障纺织厂原材料的稳定供应,结果却弄巧成拙。更高的棉价意味着棉花流向国家储备体系(有人估计,目前该体系的库存占了世界棉花库存的一半),却没有满足纺织厂所需的供应量。

中国的中央一号文件一般会列出农业部门的工作重点。今年的一号文件提出针对新疆棉花种植和东北大豆种植推行目标价格补贴试点。棉花是准军事化的新疆生产建设兵团(Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps)的主要产品。东北则是中国大多数食用大豆的种植基地。

这份政策性文件中提到了对小麦、稻谷、玉米、油菜籽和食糖的继续储备,却没有提到任何有关棉花储备的内容,这表明中国正在悄然放弃棉花储备计划。中国储备棉管理总公司(简称中储棉)早些时候表示,在2013年收获季开始以来收购550万吨棉花之后,它不会再买入棉花。

一位不愿透露姓名的分析人士表示:“没有这项扶持政策,河南和山东的棉花种植面积可能会减少。不过就算发生了这种情况,中国政府也不会太过担心。中国的棉花库存如此之高,没必要鼓励棉花种植。”

昨天,中国国家统计局(National Bureau of Statistics)表示,去年中国棉花总产量大约是630万吨,下跌了7.7%。其中新疆的棉花产量维持在350万吨不变。

为稳定棉花供应及安抚新疆躁动不安的棉农,2011年中国设定了棉花价格下限并开始囤积棉花。然而这一政策产生了反作用,使纺织厂反而得不到原料,绝望中的纺织厂不得不选择进口棉纱。

中国的大豆储备项目对市场产生的影响要小得多,该项目是几年前在东北大豆种植商的游说下设立的。东北是中国多数大型机械化农场的所在地。

中国用于榨油和饲料的大豆绝大部分依赖进口,不过中国要求豆腐必须使用国内种植的非转基因大豆制作。

黑龙江省大豆协会(Heilongjiang Soybean Industry Association)的一位代表表示,该协会希望中国会继续实行某种经过完善的大豆储备政策。

赵添琦(Zhao Tianqi)补充报道

译者/何黎

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