【英语中国】在华美企担心中国反腐执法趋严 US companies anxious over Chinese anti-corruption laws

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所属分类:双语中国

2014-2-26 12:26

小艾摘要: US companies have become much more concerned about complying with local Chinese laws in the wake of Beijing’s highly-publicised corruption crackdown, according to the American Chamber of Commerce in ...
US companies anxious over Chinese anti-corruption laws
US companies have become much more concerned about complying with local Chinese laws in the wake of Beijing’s highly-publicised corruption crackdown, according to the American Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai.

The chamber surveyed 400 US companies operating in China for its annual China Business Report, and found that the GlaxoSmithKline corruption scandal last year and Beijing’s anti-corruption campaign have spurred 40 per cent of those surveyed to plan more spending on compliance.

About a quarter said they had already made changes to commercial practices or incentives in China as a result. The survey also found companies were less worried about an economic slowdown in China, but more concerned about risks to their business from increased enforcement of anti-corruption, pricing and competition laws.

“There is a big jump in the importance attached to compliance with local laws,” said Ken Jarrett, the chamber’s president. Nearly half of respondents identified complying with local laws as more important than compliance with international anti-corruption laws, such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the UK Bribery Act. Last year, before the GSK bribery scandal, less than a third of those surveyed said they were most concerned with local law.

“This year’s pharmaceutical industry issues have really sensitised businesses operating in China,” said Kent Kedl, Greater China managing director of Control Risks, which investigates fraud and corruption at businesses in China. “But there is no unified anti-bribery or anti-corruption law in China, like the FCPA, and there are many regulatory bodies that enforce the law, so it’s all a bit confusing for companies right now,” he said.

“Two-thirds of US companies in China struggle with fraud and corruption,” he said, but added they are less worried now about government corruption and more worried about in-house corruption, including self-dealing by senior managers.

More than half of those surveyed said they were most concerned about pressure to give sales kickbacks to customers, and the risk that employees would defraud the company. Mr Kedl said he didn’t think corruption among US companies was worse now than previously – merely that now that China’s hectic economic growth has slowed, companies were less distracted and had more time to pay attention to it.

The survey also found a structural shift towards the service sector as China moves away from being primarily a manufacturing economy. Services accounted for more than half of US companies’ revenues in 2013, up 11 percentage points from 2012.

上海美国商会(American Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai)报告称,在中国政府高调展开反腐行动之后,美国企业开始更加关注于遵守中国本土法律。

为撰写年度《中国商业报告》(China Business Report),上海美国商会对400家在华开展业务的美资企业进行了调查。调查发现,去年的葛兰素史克(GSK)丑闻和中国政府的反腐败行动,促使40%的受访企业表示将增加合规方面的支出。

约四分之一的受访企业表示,它们已经因此对中国地区的商业惯例或奖金安排做了一些调整。调查还发现,企业对中国经济放缓并不是特别担忧,相反,它们更担心的是,反腐败、定价和反垄断法规执行力度加大对自身带来风险。

上海美国商会总裁季瑞达(Ken Jarrett)表示:“企业对遵守中国本土法律的重视程度大大提高。”近一半受访企业表示,遵守中国本土法律比遵守美国《反海外腐败法》(Foreign Corrupt Practices Act)、英国《反贿赂法》(Bribery Act)等外国反腐败法规更加重要。去年,GSK贿赂丑闻爆出之前,仅有不到三分之一的受访企业表示它们更重视遵守中国本土法律。

Control Risks大中华区董事总经理肯特?克德尔(Kent Kedl)表示:“这一年来医药行业爆出的问题,真正让在华外企变得更谨慎了。”Control Risk是一家调查在华企业欺诈和腐败问题的咨询机构。克德尔表示:“但中国没有一部像美国《反海外腐败法》那样的统一的反贿赂或反腐败法,有许多监管部门都在执法,因此企业目前有点困惑。”

克德尔说:“三分之二的在华美资企业都面临欺诈和腐败问题。”但他补充称,企业不太担心政府腐败,而是更担心内部腐败,包括高管的自我交易(self-dealing)。

逾一半受访企业表示,它们最担心的是面临给顾客回扣的压力,以及雇员欺诈的风险。克德尔表示,他认为美资企业中的腐败问题并不比之前更严重,只不过是因为如今中国经济增长有所放缓,企业有了更多精力和时间来关注这个问题。

调查还发现,随着原本以制造业为主的中国经济开始转型,服务业的地位得到结构性提升。2013年,服务业占到在华美资企业营收的50%以上,比2012年提高了11个百分点。

译者/阑天

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