【英语中国】中国发布《国家新型城镇化规划》 China reveals blueprint to expand urbanisation

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所属分类:双语中国

2014-3-19 08:45

小艾摘要: China’s leaders have revealed a plan for a multiyear round of state-led infrastructure construction that they hope will prop up the economy amid flagging growth, as they move 100m more people from th ...
China reveals blueprint to expand urbanisation
China’s leaders have revealed a plan for a multiyear round of state-led infrastructure construction that they hope will prop up the economy amid flagging growth, as they move 100m more people from the rural hinterland into the country’s growing cities.

The Chinese government’s “National New-type Urbanisation Plan”, revealed on Sunday, envisions a massive building programme of transport networks, urban infrastructure and residential real estate from now until 2020.

While promising to make China’s urbanisation more “human-centred and environmentally friendly”, the plan also explicitly targets the boosting of headline growth at a time when China’s economy is slowing after years of frenetic credit-fuelled infrastructure and property investment.

Over the longer term, China’s leaders want to shift the country’s growth model to make it less infrastructure driven and more reliant on services and consumption, but they insist that they must keep investment levels high in the short term to guarantee employment and political stability.

“Domestic demand is the fundamental impetus for China’s development, and the greatest potential for expanding domestic demand lies in urbanisation,” the plan stated.

About 54 per cent of China’s population lives in cities, compared with 80 per cent in developed countries and roughly 60 per cent for developing countries with similar per capita income levels as China.

The government’s plan aims to lift the urbanisation rate to 60 per cent by 2020, but this task will be complicated by the fact that many city dwellers are excluded from permanent resident status by China’s strict hukou household registration system.

Those who are born in the countryside and move to cities without securing urban hukou permits are usually not eligible to use any social services, including health, housing, education or pensions in their new urban homes.

That means that about 270m of China’s urban residents are rural migrants who live in a kind of limbo in their new homes and often return to their villages if they lose their job in the city.

This means that much of China’s urbanisation to date is reversible – a problem the government’s new plan hopes to address by gradually granting 100m of these migrant workers permanent urban hukou permits by 2020.

As part of the planned infrastructure construction, the government plans to ensure that every city in China with more than 200,000 residents will be connected by standard rail and express roads by 2020, while every city with more than 500,000 residents will be accessed by high-speed rail.

New airports will be built to ensure that the civil aviation network covers about 90 per cent of China’s population.

The plan also calls for the redevelopment of 4.75m household units in rundown shantytowns this year alone, with an expected total cost of Rmb1tn ($163bn), according to state media reports.

The urbanisation plan was originally expected to be published more than a year ago, but deep divisions between government departments and dissatisfaction from Li Keqiang, the Chinese premier, who has been a strong champion of the scheme, delayed the plan’s publication until now.

中国领导层出台了一份政府主导的为期多年的基础设施建设规划,他们希望此举将在增长乏力之际支撑中国经济。中国领导层打算再让1亿农村居民迁入中国不断发展的城市。

中国政府周日公布的《国家新型城镇化规划》提出一个从现在到2020年的大规模建设计划,涵盖交通网络、城市基础设施和住宅房地产。

在承诺让中国的城镇化进程更加注重“以人为本”和“生态文明”的同时,《规划》也明确以提振整体增长为目标。经过持续多年的狂热信贷推动的基础设施和房地产投资繁荣之后,中国经济目前正在放缓。

从长远来看,中国领导人希望推动本国经济增长模式转型,使其降低对基础设施的依赖,加大服务业和消费的比重,但他们坚持认为,短期而言他们必须将投资保持在较高水平,以保障就业和政治稳定。

“内需是我国经济发展的根本动力,扩大内需的最大潜力在于城镇化,”《规划》宣告。

目前中国大约有54%的人口居住在城市,而发达国家的城市人口比例达到80%,人均收入水平与中国相似的发展中国家的这个比例则为60%左右。

政府的计划旨在到2020年将城镇化率提高到60%,但这项任务面临的一个复杂性在于,中国严厉的户籍制度使许多城市居民被挡在永久居民身份的门外。

那些出生于农村、在没有取得城市户籍的情况下迁居城市的人士,通常在城里的新家园没有资格使用任何社会服务,包括医疗、住房、教育或者养老金。

这意味着中国有大约2.7亿城镇居民是进城务工人员,他们在城里的新家园生活在某种没有着落的状态,如果他们失去在城里的工作,他们往往返回老家的村子。

这进而意味着,中国迄今的城镇化在很大程度上是可逆的。政府的新规划希望解决这个问题,在2020年之前将逐步向1亿左右农业转移人口发放永久的城镇户口。

作为基础设施建设规划的一部分,政府拟确保到2020年普通铁路网和国家高速公路覆盖20万以上人口的城市,而50万以上人口的城市则被高铁网所覆盖。

中国政府还将建设一批新机场,以确保民用航空网络覆盖全国90%左右的人口。

据官方媒体报道,《规划》要求在今年内完成对475万户棚户区住宅的改造,预计总支出达到1万亿元人民币(合1630亿美元)。

人们在一年多前就预期城镇化规划即将出炉,但政府部门之间的深层次分歧,加上力推该计划的中国总理李克强的不满,使《规划》的公布推迟至今。

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