【英语中国】美警告中国勿用武力解决海上争端 US warns China not to use force in maritime disputes

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2014-4-7 23:16

小艾摘要: The Obama administration has warned Beijing not to use force or coercive tactics to pursue its territorial claims in Asia, saying that sanctions placed on Russia for annexing Crimea should have a “ch ...
US warns China not to use force in maritime disputes
The Obama administration has warned Beijing not to use force or coercive tactics to pursue its territorial claims in Asia, saying that sanctions placed on Russia for annexing Crimea should have a “chilling effect” on any such plans in China.

Daniel Russel, the top east Asia official at the state department, on Thursday said China’s neighbours, particularly in southeast Asia, had heightened concerns about the “possibility of China increasingly threatening force or other forms of coercion to advance their territorial interests” following Russia’s actions in Crimea.

“The tolerance in the region for steps by China that appear to presage a more muscular approach has gone down, as their alarm over Russian action and annexation of Crimea has increased,” Mr Russel told a Senate committee.

He said China was “thinking hard” about the international response to Russia’s move partly because of its economic linkages with the US and its neighbours.

“The prospect of the kind of incremental retaliatory steps that are gradually being imposed on Russia in terms of its banks, in terms of cronies and other areas should have a chilling effect on anyone in China who might contemplate the Crimea annexation as a model,” said Mr Russel.

China is embroiled in multiple territorial disputes with its neighbours, particularly with the Philippines over contested waters in the South China Sea, and with Japan over disputed islands in the East China Sea. Last week, Beijing reacted angrily when Manila pushed ahead with an international arbitration case over the dispute.

Mr Russel said Manila’s decision to forge ahead with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea case, was “perhaps the approximate reason why the Chinese are expressing their anger and discontent on the sea through what to us appears to be intimidating steps”.

His comments come just weeks before President Barack Obama is expected to travel to Asia with stops in the Philippines, Manila, South Korea and Japan. As China expands its naval capabilities in the Pacific, the US is trying to convince its allies in the region that its “pivot” to Asia has teeth, amid regional concerns that Washington has delivered more rhetoric than action.

In recent months, the US appears to have taken a more aggressive rhetorical stance over disputes in the South China Sea. In congressional testimony, Mr Russel voiced more support for the Philippines case than the Obama administration has done in the past.

He also asked China to clarify the “nine-dash line”, a demarcation on Chinese maps that Beijing uses to justify its claim to almost the entire South China Sea, and which is central to the Unclos tribunal.

China has refused to participate in the arbitration, saying that the dispute over the South China Sea is not covered by Unclos, because of an exception that was included when China ratified the treaty.

In the latest example of South China Sea tensions, Chinese coastguard ships have tried to block Philippine vessels from resupplying a second world war vessel called the Sierra Madre. The boat was grounded in 1999 on the Second Thomas Shoal in the Spratly Islands but is still manned by a few Philippine military personnel.

Following a successful attempt by China to block a supply mission earlier in March, the Philippines on Monday managed to outmanoeuvre the Chinese coastguard and deliver supplies to the Sierra Madre.

奥巴马政府警告中国政府,不要在亚洲用武力或强制手段表达领土诉求,并表示,对俄罗斯吞并克里米亚的制裁措施应该能让中国此类计划“冷静一下”。

美国国务院东亚事务最高长官丹尼?罗素(Daniel Russel)周四表示,俄罗斯在克里米亚采取行动之后,中国各邻国,尤其是东南亚邻国,对“中国可能会越来越多地以武力或其他强制手段相要挟,以推进其领土利益”,已越来越担心。

罗素向美国参议院一个委员会表态说:“中国的种种举动似乎预示着中国的行为方式将更为强硬,而该地区对中国这些举动的容忍度已大大降低,因为各国对俄罗斯对克里米亚采取的行动及吞并行为日益警觉。”

罗素表示,中国正在“认真考虑”俄罗斯的举动在国际社会引起的反响,这部分是由于中美之间及中国与各邻国的经济联系。

罗素表示:“俄罗斯的银行、盟友及其他领域受到的报复性制裁正在逐渐加码,对这种制裁措施的预期应该能让任何可能会将克里米亚的吞并视为模板的中国人冷静一下。”

中国卷入多起与邻国的领土争端,尤其是与菲律宾在南中国海争议海域的争端,以及与日本在东中国海有争议岛屿的争端。就在上周,当菲律宾政府把领土争议提交国际仲裁后,中国政府曾对此予以愤怒回应。

罗素表示,菲律宾决定把问题提交《联合国海洋法公约》(UN Convention on the Law of the Sea)的决定,“也许是中国在海上通过在我们看来是恐吓的举措表达其愤怒与不满的原因”。

就在罗素发表此番言论几周后,美国总统巴拉克奥巴马(Barack Obama)将开展对亚洲的访问,他此行将在菲律宾马尼拉、韩国以及日本稍作停留。随着中国在太平洋海军实力的增强,由于该地区有人担心美国政府口惠而实不至,美国正试图让其盟友相信其“重返”亚洲的计划是要说到做到的。

最近几个月,美国似乎对南中国海争端采取了更为强硬的措辞。在国会作证时,罗素对菲律宾的口头支持超过了奥巴马政府以往的表态。

他还要求中国明确给出“九段线”的定义。九段线是中国地图上给出的一条划界线,中国政府把该界线作为其拥有几乎整个南中国海主权的理由。该界线对于《联合国海洋法公约》法庭来说是一个核心问题。

中国拒绝参加这一仲裁。中国表示由于中国接受《联合国海洋法公约》时曾列入一个例外情形,南中国海的争端并不受该条约的制约。

在南中国海最近一起紧张事态中,中国海监船试图阻止菲律宾舰艇为一艘名为马德雷山号(Sierra Madre)的军舰提供补给。1999年,这艘二战时期的军舰搁浅于斯普拉特利群岛(Spratly Islands,中国称南沙群岛)的第二托马斯礁(Second Thomas Shoal,中国称仁爱礁),目前该舰上仍驻有菲律宾几名军方人员。

在3月份早些时候中国成功阻止菲律宾一次提供补给的活动之后,周一菲律宾方面成功突破了中国海监船的封锁,将补给送至马德雷山号军舰。

译者/何黎

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