【英语中国】用星巴克开店数量帮中国城市分级? What Makes a Tier-2 City in China? Count the Starbucks

  • A+
所属分类:双语中国

2014-4-16 18:16

小艾摘要: What exactly differentiates a tier-two Chinese city from a tier-three city? Officially no one knows, but it might help to start by counting the Starbucks.China has more than 600 cities, which are ofte ...
What Makes a Tier-2 City in China? Count the Starbucks
What exactly differentiates a tier-two Chinese city from a tier-three city? Officially no one knows, but it might help to start by counting the Starbucks.

China has more than 600 cities, which are often categorized into four tiers. The government, industry experts and analysts all use this classification, but there is almost no agreement about which city belongs to which tier.

Unlike almost every other Chinese economic indicator, the government doesn't have an official definition for the tiers. Even the country's official statistics department--which uses the classification system but notes that it was started by the private sector--said it doesn't have a definitive list.

Aside from tier-one cities--which most outlets have agreed include Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen--it's largely a free for all. Depending on which organization you ask, China has 18, 24 or 49 tier-two cities, and 108, 149 or 318 tier-three cities. There's even less agreement on fourth-tier cities. To make matters even messier, some real-estate advisers talk of fifth- and sixth-tier cities, or 2.5-tier cities.

Some banks, government offices and research houses label all provincial capitals as second-tier, while others draw their conclusions based on criteria such as population figures, gross domestic product, disposable income and housing sales.

Fund managers and market-research firms tend to use more elaborate criteria. Private-equity firm CDH Investments Management looks at drivers of employment, number and quality of universities, current and future transport links, and whether local officials are what it deems 'pro-business and forward-thinking.' Another research firm once used the number of Starbucks outlets in a city to identify whether it was third- or fourth-tier.

'Sometimes it's based on the feeling we get when we go to the city and talk to the people. What are the properties developments like, are people there sophisticated?' said Yan Ke Yue, a market consultant at Flamingo Group's Shanghai office.

For example, even though Beijing is 'a first-tier city in terms of income and infrastructure, it has a second-tier mindset,' Ms. Yan said, citing the fact that many people in Beijing are more conservative than their counterparts in Shanghai or Shenzhen.

While this might seem like a debate that only statisticians would care about, it's important because officials and companies rely on the markers when making business expansion, employment and policy decisions. And Chinese property developers have become more sensitive to the labels in recent years.

When the central government cracked down on rising home prices and speculators in tier-one and two cities in 2011, many investors flocked to smaller cities where Beijing's policy arm had less reach. Recently, however, many developers have returned to the larger cities where demand is stronger and where they can charge higher prices.

And this migration back and forth is driving a move to further fragment cities. Real-estate portal SouFun HoldingsSFUN -1.70% has identified eight 'tier-1.5' cities, 24 'tier-2.5' cities and 79 'tier-3.5' cities among the 289 cities it tracks.

Esther Fung / Richard Silk / Liyan Qi

Agence France-Presse/Getty Images北京一家星巴克咖啡店。大家应该都同意北京是一线城市吧?
如何准确区分中国的二线城市和三线城市?目前尚无官方定论,但数一下每个城市星巴克门店的数量或许可以提供一些帮助。

中国有600多个城市,通常被归为四个级别:一线、二线、三线和四线城市。政府、业界专家和分析师均使用这个层级系统,但他们基本上没有就哪个城市对应哪一层级达成一致。

不同于绝大多数的中国经济指标,政府对于城市分级没有给出官方的定义。就连中国的官方统计机构也表示没有确定的城市分级名单。官方统计机构使用城市分级系统,但指出该系统始于民间机构。

除了一线城市——多数人认同包括北京、上海、广州和深圳,其他二、三、四线城市的界定则比较混乱。当你询问不同的机构时,你会得到不同的答案。二线城市有几个?答案分别是18、24或49个。三线城市有多少?答案分别是108、149和318个。对于四线城市的界定,分歧甚至更大。一些房地产顾问还提出了五线或六线城市,或者2.5线城市,这让情况变得更加混乱。

一些银行、政府部门和研究机构将所有省会城市列为二线城市,另一些机构则将人口、地区生产总值(GDP)、可支配收入和房屋销售情况作为城市分级的依据。

基金管理公司和市场研究公司倾向于使用更复杂的指标。如私募股权投资公司鼎晖投资(CDH Investments Management)研究的是就业驱动因素、大学的数量和质量、当前和未来的交通状况以及地方官员是否具有“重商和前瞻性”头脑这些指标。另一家研究公司曾用一个城市的星巴克门店数量来判断它到底是三线还是四线城市。

Flamingo Group上海办公室的市场顾问Yan Ke Yue表示,有时候他们对一个城市属于几线城市的判断基于他们到那以后以及与当地人交谈时的感觉,比如当地的房地产发展如何,当地人是否见多识广。

她说,举个例子,虽然就收入和基础设施而言,北京是一线城市,但这个城市在思想上却是二线的。她指出,许多北京人比上海人或者深圳人要保守。

虽然这看上去似乎是一个只有统计人士才会关心的争论,但这个问题很重要,因为官员和企业在做商业拓展、聘用和政策决定时会依赖城市分级标记。而且最近几年,中国房地产开发商对城市级别划分越来越敏感。

2011年,当中央政府打压一、二线城市不断上涨的房价和投机者时,许多投资者纷纷前往受中央政策影响较小的中小城市。但最近,很多开发商又重新返回大中型城市,因为大中型城市的需求更强劲,他们可以卖更高的房价。

上述情况正推动城市分级的进一步细化。房地产门户网站搜房(SouFun Holdings)已在其追踪的289个城市中确认了八个1.5线城市,24个2.5线城市和79个3.5线城市。

Esther Fung / Richard Silk / Liyan Qi

(本文版权归道琼斯公司所有,未经许可不得翻译或转载。)关键词:房地产  星巴克  

本文关键字:双语阅读,小艾英语,双语网站,双语中国,实时资讯,互联网新闻,ERWAS,行业解析,创业指导,营销策略,英语学习,可以双语阅读的网站!
  • 我的微信
  • 扫一扫加关注
  • weinxin
  • 微信公众号
  • 扫一扫加关注
  • weinxin

发表评论

:?: :razz: :sad: :evil: :!: :smile: :oops: :grin: :eek: :shock: :???: :cool: :lol: :mad: :twisted: :roll: :wink: :idea: :arrow: :neutral: :cry: :mrgreen: