【英语中国】俄罗斯在上海留下的印记 As Putin Visits, Signs of Russia Linger in Shanghai

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所属分类:双语中国

2014-5-20 17:00

小艾摘要: Tight security makes it unlikely most Shanghai citizens will see Vladimir Putin during his brief visit here this week. But it's easy to glimpse Russia through the city's architecture and statues, perh ...
As Putin Visits, Signs of Russia Linger in Shanghai
Tight security makes it unlikely most Shanghai citizens will see Vladimir Putin during his brief visit here this week. But it's easy to glimpse Russia through the city's architecture and statues, perhaps rivaled only by the borscht at Café Putin.

Mr. Putin arrived Tuesday in Shanghai to attend an Asian security forum and ahead of a state visit to Beijing later in the week. For several days off the Shanghai coast, Russian and Chinese military vessels plan military drills. The president has visited Shanghai before, including in 2006 and twice in 2001.

Russia's ties into Shanghai predate the pursuit of communism that defined the sometimes uneasy Sino-Soviet relationship through the second half of the last century. Shanghai's government estimated the local Russian population at 1,150 a few years ago, less than 1% of the foreigners in town. Yet, at the height in 1937, more than 30,000 Russians lived in the city, the biggest group of non-Chinese.

The population bulge followed turmoil back home and represented how Shanghai served as a sanctuary for Europeans fleeing political and religious repression. This group included a sizable community of Russian Jews who named the now-restored Ohel Moshe Synagogue for a leading member of their community. Others were artists and musicians, and more than a few staked out criminal acitivity.

'Undeniably, Shanghai takes a special place in the Russian imagination,' says Albert Krisskoy, vice chairman of the Shanghai Russian Club.

'I wouldn't say it's a glorious history but it's a history of survival,' said Mr. Krisskoy, noting that many Russians arrived in Shanghai penniless and stateless. Even today, Mr. Krisskoy said, while being shanghaied in English means getting kidnapped onto a ship, the city's name to Russians refers to run-down sections of a town.

At the heart of the French Concession stands the St. Nicholas Church, one of two 1930s-era Orthodox Russian places of worship that by the late 1990s ingloriously housed nightclubs until officials pulled the plug about a decade ago. Also in the French district and evoking a more Kremlinesque design is a former Russian Orthodox Cathedral. A year ago, the head of Russian Orthodoxy celebrated a liturgy under its black onion domes.

Russian Orthodoxy isn't one of China's five sanctioned religions, which may explain why a shrine that stretches heavenward -- while no longer a disco called The Dome -- today lacks much spiritual vibe or even the kind of heritage plaque affixed to many noteworthy old buildings in town.

The cathedral sometimes opens its doors to art exhibits, including a recent show of sentimental young Chinese painters and sculptors who produced items recalling childhood bliss, somewhat less controversial for the Russian community than its use as a so-called den of sin.

'It would be great if President Putin could visit the churches, one or both,' said Mr. Krisskoy. He said the Russian president has previously pushed for wider acceptance by Chinese authorities of the religion, and now Easter and Christmas services are sometimes held in the St. Nicholas Church.

And while the discos have closed, hipsters still gather around another reminder of Russia in the French Concession: the Pushkin Monument. Benches that encircle the poet's elegant bust high atop a pedestal are popular among patrons of midnight fried noodles sold on the bar street.

'We talk about the Russians a great deal because there were three times the number of Russians in the French Concession as French,' says historian Daniel Newman, who runs Newman Tours. The history includes low class and high, he says: British ballerina Margot Fonteyn lived as a child in Shanghai, where she received early training from a Russian. But the community's seedy side more than anything else prompted Hollywood producers to add 'Shanghai' to movie names -- 'that was like putting the word sex in the title,' he said.

Shanghai also has been blessed with some imposing Russian architecture.

The Sino-Soviet Friendship Building was a 1954 gift from Moscow, and a rare major construction between the sunset of Shanghai's colonial era in 1949 and its rapid steps toward the market three decades later. (Russia gave Beijing one too.) Until recently, the Shanghai branch of China's Communist Party convened its congress under the neo-baroque hall's red star and most weeks its green marbled floors feature a boat show or real-estate exhibit.

In addition to tenements near the cathedral, much of Shanghai's Russian community lived near the city's riverfront Bund. The country's red-roof consulate at the confluence of the Huangpu River and Suzhou Creek dates to 1896.

The turn-of-the-century Russo-Chinese Bank building along the Bund is one of the strip's grandest historical markers. For a time it served as the local headquarters of China's central bank and was where some of the first international dealings in yuan took place.

For a taste of today's Russia, it's hard to beat the 28 yuan ($4.50) bowl of borsch served at Café Putin.

Not far from Shanghai's main railway station, the refined little restaurant features domed lights hanging from the ceiling and deep-hued Russian paintings on the walls. Shelves are crammed with Russian and Chinese books with titles like 'Putin Time' and 'Russia and China: Joined in Revolution,' something to browse while sipping purplish pomegranate juice whipped thick and served in a wine flute.

The Russian owner couldn't be reached, and an otherwise smiley blonde woman holding her blue-eyed baby and counting the money on a recent day declined to answer questions. Free Wi-Fi appeared to be a bigger draw for the café's few patrons than the rich borscht stew of onions, cucumber, celery and potatoes in a thick red beef broth.

A Chinese-language brochure about the café says it was inspired by President Putin's daughter Mariya, in particular her promotion of cross-cultural communications and respect for the Chinese monks of Shaolin Temple. (Rumors swirl that she studied Chinese.)

'In Café Putin you can taste high-quality and natural Russian cuisine, and experience the most authentic and exclusive Russian civility,' it says.

俄罗斯总统普京(Vladimir Putin)本周对上海进行短暂访问,戒备森严的安保措施可能令多数上海市民无法一睹俄罗斯总统的风采。但从上海的建筑和雕塑中很容易感觉到俄罗斯的气息,可能只有普京咖啡馆(Cafe Putin)的罗宋汤才能与之媲美。

Wikimedia Commons位于上海的东正教教堂。照片拍摄日期不明。普京周二抵达上海出席一个亚洲安全论坛,他还将于本周晚些时候对北京进行国事访问。几天以来,俄罗斯和中国军用船只一直在上海海岸为军演做准备。普京此前曾访问过上海,一次是在2006年,还有两次是在2001年。

俄罗斯和上海的联系在当时的苏联和中国共同追求共产主义之前就业已形成。上海市政府估计,几年前上海的俄罗斯人数量为1,150人,占该市外国人数量的比重不足1%。然而在1937年,上海的俄罗斯人口达到峰值时,有超过30,000俄罗斯人居住在上海,是该市最大的外国人群体。

上海的俄罗斯人数量激增后紧接着出现的是当时苏联国内的动荡,上海在这一时期成为躲避政治和宗教迫害的欧洲人的避难地。这一团体包括一个规模较大的俄罗斯犹太人社区,这些人将现已修复的摩西会堂(Ohel Moshe Synagogue)作为社区的重要一份子。其他人包括艺术家和音乐家,其中不少人监视犯罪活动。

上海俄罗斯俱乐部副主席克里斯科(Albert Krisskoy)称,不可否认的是,上海在人们对俄罗斯的想象中占据着一个特殊的位置。

克里斯科表示,不能说那是一段光辉的历史,但也是一段关乎生存的历史。他指出,当时许多到达上海的俄罗斯人身无分文也没有国籍;甚至是在现在,英语中的“being shanghaied”意思是被绑架到一艘船上,但上海的名字对俄罗斯人来说则意味着一个镇子里的贫民窟。

Agence France-Presse/Getty Images上海一座俄罗斯东正教教堂。一年前,俄罗斯东正教大牧首曾在这座教堂的黑色圆形拱顶下举行礼拜。
在昔日上海法租界的中心,矗立着 尼古拉斯教堂(St. Nicholas Church)。这是上世纪30年代建造的两座俄罗斯东正教教堂之一,到上世纪90年代末已成为夜总会场所,直到官方在大约10年前将夜总会清除。在这个地区,更具克林姆林宫设计风格的是一座前俄罗斯东正教大教堂。就在一年前,俄罗斯东正教大牧首曾在这座教堂的黑色圆形拱顶下举行礼拜。

俄罗斯东正教不属于中国官方认可的五大宗教,这或许可以解释为什么这样一座高高耸立的教堂却没有太多宗教气氛,甚至连城内许多引人注目的古建筑门前悬挂的文保单位的牌子都没有。不过,一家名为“圆顶”(The Dome)的迪斯科舞厅总算搬出这里了。

这座东正教大教堂有时会举办艺术展,包括最近举办的一场中国青年画家和雕刻家追忆童年幸福时光的作品展。与让教堂成为所谓的“罪恶巢穴”相比,把教堂派作这种用途对于当地俄罗斯居民来说会少一些争议。

克里斯科说,如果普京能来参观这两座或其中的一座教堂,那就太好了。他说,普京过去曾呼吁中国政府更大程度地接受东正教,现在 尼古拉斯教堂有时会举行复活节和 诞节的礼拜。

虽然教堂内的迪斯科舞厅已经关闭,但追求时尚的人仍会聚集在当地另一处具有俄罗斯风情的场所附近,那就是普希金纪念碑(Pushkin Monument)。在纪念碑高高的基座上是这位俄国诗人优雅的半身像,纪念碑四周的长椅颇受午夜时分在酒吧街购买炒面的顾客欢迎。

经营着纽曼旅游(Newman Tours)的历史学家纽曼(Daniel Newman)说,我们经常谈到俄罗斯人是因为法租界内俄罗斯人数量是法国人的三倍。他说,这段历史包括底层也包括上层俄罗斯人,英国芭蕾舞演员芳登(Margot Fonteyn)的童年是在上海度过的,她在上海从一位俄罗斯人那里接受了早期芭蕾舞训练。纽曼说,但这个城市阴暗的一面而不是其他的特点促使好莱坞制片人将“上海”加入电影的名字,这就如同在电影名称中加上性这个词。

上海也有一些壮观的俄罗斯建筑。

中苏友好大厦是1954年苏联政府出资修建的,这是1949年上海结束殖民地历史一直到三十年后快速进入现代化期间所修建的为数不多的建筑之一。最近,中国共产党上海党代会刚刚在这个新巴洛克大厅的红星下举行,而多数时间这座建筑的绿色大理石地板上映衬的是一场游艇展或者房展会。

除了大教堂附近住户外,上海的俄罗斯人大多居住在黄浦江外滩。在黄浦江和苏州河交汇处拥有红色屋顶的俄罗斯领事馆的历史可以追溯到1896年。

成立于上世纪初的华俄道胜银行大楼(Russo-Chinese Bank building, 简称:华胜大楼)位于上海外滩,是外滩最优秀的历史建筑之一。中国央行曾将这栋大楼作为其地方总部办公楼。最初的人民币国际交易部分是在华胜大楼进行的。

如果想尝尝舌尖上的俄罗斯,选择普京咖啡一碗人民币28元(约合4.50美元)的罗宋汤再合适不过了。

James T. Areddy for The Wall Street Journal距上海火车站不远的普京咖啡。
普京咖啡距离上海新客站不远。这家小餐馆装饰精致,半球形的顶灯从天花板垂下, 上挂着深色调的俄罗斯油画。书架上塞满了俄语和中文书和杂志,例如“普京时代“(Putin Time)、《俄罗斯与中国:加入革命》(Russia and China: Joined in Revolution)等。你可以一边品尝石榴果汁,一边浏览这些杂志。

记者没有联系到普京咖啡的老板。最近某一天店内一名金发女子抱着蓝眼睛的婴儿正在数钱,她面带微笑,但不愿回答记者的提问。

餐馆提供免费的Wi-Fi,不过对大多数老顾客来说,一碗由洋葱、黄瓜、芹菜、土豆、牛肉炖出来的罗宋汤吸引力更大。

普京咖啡的中文宣传册称,创建这家餐馆的灵感来自俄罗斯总统普京的女儿玛丽亚(Mariya)。玛丽亚帮助促进了跨文化交流,并拜少林武僧为师,学习少林武术。(坊间传闻称玛丽亚还学习中文。)

宣传册称,在普京咖啡,你可以品尝到高质量、自然风味的俄罗斯美食,体验最地道、独家的俄罗斯礼仪。

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